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electron displacement in molecules

It is seen that most of the attacking reagents bear either a positive or negative charge. these would not attack the substrate successfully unless the latter somehow possessed oppositely charged centres in the molecule. So the substrate molecule must develop polarity on some of its carbon atoms and substituents linked together. This is made possible by the displacement of the bonding electrons resulting in the development of polarity in the substrate molecule. Such effects involving the displacement of electrons in the substrate molecule referred to as electron displacement effects. There are four types of electronic displacemnet in organic molecules:
1. Inductive effect
2. Electromeric effect
3. Mesomeric effect
4. Hyperconjugative effet

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