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what is electron - rich impurities $ electron -deficient impurities?


The pure semiconductor is basically neutral. It contains no free electrons in its conduction bands. Even with the application of thermal energy, only a few covalent bonds are broken, yielding a relatively small current flow. A much more efficient method of increasing current flow in semiconductors is by adding very small amounts of selected additives to them, generally no more than a few parts per million(ppm). These additives are called impurities and the process of adding them to crystals is referred to as DOPING. The purpose of semiconductor doping is to increase the number of free charges that can be moved by an external applied voltage. When an impurity increases the number of free electrons, the doped semiconductor is NEGATIVE or N TYPE, and the impurity(electron rich) that is added is known as an N-type impurity. However, an impurity that reduces the number of free electrons, causing more holes, creates a POSITIVE or P-TYPE semiconductor, and the impurity that was added to it is known as a P-type impurity(electron deficient). Semiconductors which are doped in this manner - either with N- or P-type impurities - are referred to as EXTRINSIC semiconductors.

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