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Notes of chapter 5 . minerals and rocks class 11th Text book : fundamentals of physical geography .

The earth is composed of various kinds  of elements. These elements are in solid form in the outer layer of the earth and n hot and molten form in the interior.  bout 98 per cent of the total crust of the earth is composed of eight elements like oxygen, silicon, aluminium, iron, calcium,  sodium, potassium and magnesium (Table 5.1), and the rest is constituted by titanium, hydrogen, phosphorous, manganese, sulphur, carbon, nickel and other elements. The elements in the earth’s crust are rarely found exclusively but are usually combined with other elements to make various substances. These substances are recognised as minerals. Though the number of elements making up the lithosphere are limited they are  combined in many different ways to make up many varieties of minerals. There are at least 2,000 minerals that have been named and identified in the earth crust; but almost all the commonly occurring ones are related to six major mineral groups that are known as major rock forming minerals. he basic source of all minerals is the hot  magma in the interior of the earth. When
magma cools, crystals of minerals appear and a systematic series of minerals are formed in sequence to solidify so as to form rocks. Minerals such as coal, petroleum and natural gas are organic substances found in solid,
liquid and gaseous forms respectively.

Silicon and oxygen are common elements in all types of feldspar and sodium, potassium, calcium, aluminium etc. are found in specific feldspar variety. Half of the earth’s crust is composed of feldspar. It has light cream to
salmon pink colour. It is used in ceramics and glass making.
It is one of the most important components of sand and granite. It consists of silica. It is a hard mineral virtually insoluble in water. It is white or colourless and used in radio and radar. It is one of the most important  components of granite.
Pyroxene consists of calcium, aluminum, magnesium, iron and silica. Pyroxene forms 10 per cent of the earth’s crust. It is commonly found in meteorites. It is in green or black colour.
Aluminium, calcium, silica, iron, magnesium are the major elements of amphiboles. They form 7 per cent of the earth’s crust. It is in green or black colour and is used in asbestos industry. Hornblende is another form of

It comprises of potassium, aluminium, magnesium, iron, silica etc. It forms 4 per cent of the earth’s crust. It is commonly found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is used in electrical instruments.
Magnesium, iron and silica are major elements f olivine. It is used in jewellery. It is usually a  greenish crystal, often found in basaltic rocks. Besides these main minerals, other minerals like chlorite, calcite, magnetite, haematite, bauxite and barite are also.

Metallic Minerals
These minerals contain metal content and can be sub-divided into three types: (i) Precious metals : gold, silver, platinum etc.
(ii) Ferrous metals : iron and other metals often mixed with iron to form various kinds of steel.
(iii) Non-ferrous metals : include metals like copper, lead, zinc, tin, aluminium etc.
Non-Metallic Minerals
These minerals do not contain metal content. Sulphur, phosphates and nitrates are examples of non-metallic minerals. Cement is a mixture of non-metallic minerals.
The earth’s crust is composed of rocks. A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals. Rock may be hard or soft and in varied colours. For example, granite is hard, soapstone is soft. Gabbro is black and quartzite can be
milky white. Rocks do not have definite composition of mineral constituents. Feldspar and quartz are the most common minerals found in rocks.

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