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Can you explain that what is tissue cultivation?

Tissue culture is a technique of growing new plants tissue by transferring them into an artificial environment in which they can continue and function.

Plant tissue culture is defined as culturing plant seeds, organs, explants, tissues, cells, or protoplasts on a chemically defined synthetic nutrient media under sterile and controlled conditions of light, temperature, and humidity.

The production of new plants from a small piece of plant tissue or cells removed from the growing tips of a plant in a suitable growth medium is called tissue culture or culture solution. In this process the growth medium or culture solution is very important as, it is used for growing plant tissue because it contains various plant nutrients in the form of ‘jelly’ known as agar and plant hormones which are necessary for the growth of plant.
The process of tissue culture for producing new plants is as follows:
1. A small piece of plant tissue is taken from the growing point of the plant or from the tip of the plant and placed on a sterile jelly which contains nutrients and plant hormones. The hormones make the cells in the plant tissue divide rapidly producing many cells which forms a shapeless lump of mass called ‘callus’.
2. The callus is then transferred to another jelly containing suitable plant hormones which stimulate the callus to develop roots.
3. The callus with developed roots is then put on a yet another jelly containing different hormones which stimulate the development of shoots.
4. The callus having roots and shoots separates into tiny plantlets. In this way, many tiny plantlets are produced from just a few original plant cells or tissue.
5. The plantlets thus produced are transplanted into pots or soil where they can grow to form mature plants.

Plant tissue culture has broad applications in several areas. These applications are generally classified into three categories: basic research, environmental issues, and commercial applications. Basic application covers the concepts in understanding the physiology considering the molecular pathways in plant cells, whereas environmental application covers conservation strategies to preserve the elite germplasms for a longer time.

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