|History & Civics|
1. What was the demand of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi that was refused by the British?
Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi wanted the company to recognize her adopted son as the heir to the kingdom after the death of her husband. But the British refused to accept her adopted son as the ruler of Jhansi. By ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ introduced by Lord Dalhousie, if an Indian ruler died without a male heir his kingdom would ‘lapse’ and such kingdom would be annexed by the British Empire.
2. What did the British do to protect the interests of those who converted to Christianity?
The British believed that the Indian society had to be reformed, so they planned and implemented new laws which prohibits the practice of sati and promote widow remarriage. To protect the interest of the Christianity they took the following step :
3. How did the last Mughal Emperor live the last years of his life?
Bahadur Shah Zafar was the last Emperor of the Mughal dynasty. Although after Aurangzeb, there was no powerful Mughal ruler, the Mughal Emperors continued to be symbolically important. In fact, when a massive rebellion against British broke out in 1857, Bahadur Shah Zafar, the Mughal Emperor at that time, was persuaded and declared as the leader by the rebellions. He played an important role in the revolt of 1857 against the British. Once the revolt was suppressed Bahadur Shah Zafar was tried in court, blinded and sentenced to life imprisonment. His sons were shot dead in cold blood before him. At last he and his wife were sent to prison in Rangoon in October, 1858. Bahadur Shah Zafar died in Rangoon jail in November, 1862.
4. What could be the reasons for the confidence of the British rulers about their position in India before May 1857?
The British rulers were very confident about their position in India before May, 1857. The reasons for the confidence of were:-
So, the British were very confident that their position in India was very strong and no one could challenge them in anyway before May, 1857. The revolt was a great shock to them as they thought the disturbance caused by the issue of the cartridges would also die down and never expected that this could take the shape of such a massive rebellion.
5. What impact did Bahadur Shah Zafar's support to the rebellion have on the people and the ruling families?
There was a wide spread impact on the people of the whole country and its ruling families after Bahadur Shah Zafar accepted leadership and extended his support to the rebellion. He wrote letters to all the chiefs and rulers of the country to come forward and organize a confederacy of Indian states to fight the British. This single step taken by Bahadur Shah had great implications. All small and big kingdoms, kings, Nawabs, Rajas, princes, zamindars, chiefs and even many Hindu and Muslim religious leaders welcomed this initial step taken by the Emperor and joined hands to rebel against the British. Regiment after regiment mutinied and started to join other troops at nodal points like- Delhi, Kanpur and Lucknow. The people of towns and villages also joined the rebellion in mass and rallied around local leaders, zamindars and rulers who were prepared to regain their lost authority and fight against the British. The British had not expected this to happen. They thought that like many other revolts which occurred in the past, this revolt would also die down. But Bahadur Shah Zafar’s decision to bless the rebellion changed the situation dramatically. This filled the people with inspiration, enthusiasm, courage, hope and confidence to rise up to the situation and act against the British.
6. In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857?
As a result of the rebellion of 1857, the British changed their policies. Following are the important changes that the British made:
7. Write a note on the annexation of Awadh.
Awadh was one of the last territories to be annexed. In 1801, a subsidiary alliance was imposed on Awadh, and in 1856 it was taken over. Governor-General Dalhousie declared that the territory was being misgoverned and British rule was needed to ensure proper administration.
8. Who was Tantia Tope?
Tantia Tope was one of the national heroes who played a significant role during India's First War of Independence, the Revolt of 1857. He was military advisor of Peshwa chieftain, Nana Saheb. The chief burden of fighting on the behalf of Nana Sahib felt on the shoulder of Tantia Tope. He achieved great fame for his patriotism, bravery and skillful guerrilla operations. He was master of political propaganda.
9. How did the Company plan to bring an end to the Mughal dynasty?
10. Mention any two social reforms introduced by the British in the Indian society? How did the people of India respond to them?
The British introduced several reforms:
Many Indians began to feel that the British were destroying their religion, their social customs and their traditional way of life. But at the same time there were other Indians who readily accepted the reforms introduced by the British. In fact, they wanted to change existing social practices.
11. What did happen in Meerut after the hanging of Mangal Pandey in Barrackpore?
12. Describe the resentment which brewed among the peasants and the sepoys.
Indian sepoys' resentments.
Practice in Related Chapters
|Civilizing the Native "Educating the Nation"|
|How, When and Where|
|Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners|
|Colonialism and the City - The Story of an Imperial Capital|
|Ruling the Countryside|
|When People Rebel 1857 and After|
|Tribals,Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age|
|From Trade to Territory- The Company Establishes Power|
|Women, Caste and Reform|
|The Changing World of Visual Arts|
|India after Independence|
|The Making of the National Movement;1870 - 1947|