1.Differentiate between Unicameral and Bicameral Legislature.
A Unicameral Legislature has only one chamber. i.e. Vidhan Sabha.
A Bicameral Legislature has two chambers - Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad
2. Explain the term Quorum.
Quorum means the minimum number of members required to be present in the Legislature - whether Vidhan Sabha, Vidhan Parishad, Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha to carry on day to day activities. This is 10% of the membership.
3.Mention the privileges of a Member of Parliament.
(i) The M.Ps get their salary, daily allowance and perks as decided by the Parliament.
(ii) If an M.P is arrested the Speaker or Chairman must be informed about the reason for arrest.
In civil cases an M.P must not be arrested during the session of the Parliament or 40 days before or 40 days after the session.
(iii) The M.Ps also enjoy special freedom of speech in that an M.P cannot be arrested for any thing he says or any note that he might make in the Parliament premises.
(iv) The M.Ps cannot be forced to be part of jury in any case in a court of law. The above four are the main privileges of an M.P
4.Mention one circumstance under which a member of the State Legislative Assembly can be disqualifed.
A member of the Vidhan Sabha can be disqualified:
(i) If he is disqualified under any law of the Parliament.
(ii) If he is not an Indian citizen.
(iii) If he holds an office of profit under the Government.
(iv) If he is not of sound mind.
(v) If he is an undischarged insolvent.
5. Who is the ex-officio Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha?
The Vice- President of India is the ex-officio Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha.
6.An adult Indian citizen holding an office of profit under the State Government wishes to contest for election to the LokSabha. Is he/ she eligible ? Give a reason to justify your answer.
An adult Indian citizen holding an office of profit under the State or Central Government cannot contest for election to the Lok Sabha as the constitution makes it clear that any person holding an office of profit under the government is not eligible to contest for election to the Lok Sabha.
7.Who is the presiding officer of the Vidhan Sabha?
The Speaker is the presiding officer of the Vidhan Sabha.
8. Name the Bill that cannot originate in the Rajya Sabha.
Money Bill cannot originate in the Rajya Sabha.
9.Name the body which elects the Rajya Sabha Members.
The electoral college made up of elected members of the state legislative assemblies elect the members of the Rajya Sabha.
10.What is the maximum gap allowed between two parliamentary sessions?
According to the constitution six months should not pass between two sessions of Parliament.
11. What is meant by the term question hour in the context of parliamentary procedures in India ?
The question hour is the time when questions are put in order to get information and attention of the government on important matters.
12. How are the members of the State Legislative Assembly elected ?
The members of the state legislative assembly are elected by direct elections based on universal adult franchise granted by the constitution.
13.Mention one advantage of the Lok Sabha.
The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected and the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha is made the Prime Minister.
14.What is meant by the term Universal Adult Franchise ?
Universal Adult Franchise means that all adult Indian citizens, without any discrimination have the right to vote. Earlier the right was granted at the age of 21. Now the age limit is 18.
15. What is the term of office of a Rajya Sabha member?
The term of office of a Rajya Sabha member is 6 years. Every two years, one third of the members retire and fresh elections take place.
16.What is meant by a constituency?
States and Union territories are divided on the basis of their population into constituencies. One representative of the parliamentary constituency is elected to be a member of the Lok Sabha.
17.Mention one difference in the election of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha members as far as the electorate is concerned.
The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected while the members of the Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected by the citizens.
18.Which House of the parliament is considered to be more powerful - the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha ? State two reasons to justify your answer.
The Lok Sabha is considered more powerful than the Rajys Sabha.
This is because:
(i) The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Lok Sabha and if the Lok Sabha passes a vote of no-confidence against the Council of Ministers they will have no option but to resign. This does not apply to the Rajya Sabha.
(ii) A money bill can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha. After that it goes to the Rajya Sabha for recommendations. The Rajya Sabha has to return the money bill within 14 days with its advice.
19. How is the Speaker of the Lok Sabha elected ? Mention two functions of the Speaker during the session of the Parliament.
The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is elected by the members of the house from among themselves. The two functions of the Speaker during the sessions of Parliament are:
(i) Disciplinary functions where by the Speaker sees to the order and decorum in the House. He also makes sure that only Parliamentary language or decent words are spoken.
(ii) The Speaker is the one who recognises a member or allow him to speak. He sees that debates and discussions are to the point and asks members to yield the floor (or asks them to stop speaking).
20. Mention four ways in which the Lok Sabha exercises control over the Council of Ministers.
The four ways in which the Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers are :
(i) The Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers through the Right of Interpellation or the Question Hour. During this time the mininsters can be asked questions about the policies and the performance of the government.
(ii) Through collective responsibility of the Council of Ministers to the Lok Sabha, the Legislature keeps control on the Council of Ministers.
(iii) The Lok Sabha also has financial control over the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers cannot collect taxes or incur expenditure without the permission of the Lok Sabha.
(iv) The adjournment motion , admitted to highlight omission or any fault of the government, is another way to control the Council of Ministers.
21. Describe the financial powers of the Parliament.
The Parliament has complete control over the budget of the country.
No money can be spent or raised as taxes without the consent of the Parliament.
The union budget or statement containing the estimate of expenses and income of the Union government is passed by the Parliament.
22. Mention three instances when Parliament can make laws on the subjects entered in the State List.
Parliament can make laws on the subjects in the State List:
(i) When there is a general emergency or state emergency (known as President's rule).
(ii) When two or more states ask the Parliament to do so. But this law will only be applicable to the states which have so requested.
(iii) The Parliament can make laws on the state list, if required, to fulfil international commitments.
23. Explain the powers of the Parliament in respect of matters in the Union List and Concurrent List.
The Parliament has exclusive powers to make laws on subjects in the Union List. The Parliament and the state legislature have co-equal powers over the subjects in the concurrent list. But if the two legislatures make opposite laws on the same concurrent subject, then the law made by the Parliament will prevail and the conflicting law made by the state legislature will become null and void.
24.Mention the Judicial powers of the Parliament.
Ans. The Parliament has the judical power to impeach and remove the President. The charges against the President can be placed in either house of Parliament supported by two thirds of the House. These charges are investigated by the second House and if accepted by a similar majority in the second House, the President stands impeached and removed.
The Parliament can remove judges of the Supreme Court, the High Court, the Election Commissioner, Comptroller and Auditor General when a resolution to do so, supported by two thirds majority is passed in both the houses of the Parliament. The Parliament has also the power to try a person for its contempt.
25.Mention three powers which are common to both houses of the State Legislature.
(i) A non- money bill can be introduced either in the Vidhan Sabha or the Vidhan Parishad.
(ii) The ordinace promulgated by the Governnor is placed before both the houses of the state legislature.
(iii) Both houses of the state legislature have equal powers with regard to the amendment of the Constitution.
26. Explain any four functions of the Union Cabinet.
(i) The government policy is framed by the Cabinet and implemented by the ministers. The cabinet acts like a coordinator.
(ii) The Central Budget is prepared by the Finance Minister. It is the Cabinet which works out how the funds are to be spent and which taxes are to be levied.
(iii) The Cabinet advises the President about issuing ordinances about summoning the Parliament.
(iv) The country's foreign policy is determined by the cabinet. It helps choose our ambassadors.
27. Name the main constituents of the Indian Parliament.
The main constituents of the parliament are the President, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
28. How are the members of the Lok Sabha elected?
The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected.
29.How many members can a President nominate to the Lok Sabha?
The president can nominate two Anglo-Indian members to the Lok Sabha.
30.On what basis have seats been allotted to the various states and union territories ?
'Seats" are the allotted to various states and union territories on the basis of their population.
31. How has the Constitution ensured the representation of the Scheduled Castes and Tribes in the Lok Sabha ?
The Constitution has ensured the representation of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tibes in Parliament by providing reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. This reservation is made in accordance with their population ratio, 79 seats for Scheduled Castes and 41 for Scheduled Tribes have been reserved. This reservation was originally for 10 years but has been extended upto 2010.