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I. Fill in the blanks.

1. _________ is a stage where the actual printing happens inside a press.

2. __________ are lines printed in the corners of the page to show the printer where to trim the paper.

3. The different classification of printing are ________ , ___________and ________.

4. _______ is the final stage in the printing process.

5. ___________ is an all-cotton plain woven fabric printed with simple designs in one or more colours.

6. _____________ can be either web based publishing or as digital distribution of content.


       1. Printing

       2. Crop marks

       3. Prepress jobs, printing, postpress jobs

       4. Post press

       5. Calico

       6. Electronic publishing

II. State True or False

1. Prepress is the process of making the document ready for printing.

2. Page designing is done during the postpress stage.

3. The lines printed in the corners of the page to show the printer where to trim the paper is called margin.

4. Bleed refers to printing that goes beyond the edge of the sheet before trimming.

5. Digital printing not able to print variable data.

6. Job Definition Format (JDF) is a page processing software.

7. Flexographic printing is using an anilox roller for ink transfer.

Answer :

              1. True

              2. False

              3. False

              4. True

              5. False

              6. False

              7. True

III. Question and Answer.

1. What is Printing?

Printing is a process for reproducting text and images using a master from or template.

2. Who developed the printing machine?

The printing machine was developed by Johannes Guternberg.

3. Describe Johannes Gutenberg invention.

Johannes Gutenberg was a German inventor who  developed a method of printing from a movable type.  In those times, the types (characters or letters) for  printing were carved from wood. Gutenberg  developed a metal type instead of wooden types for his press.  Gutenberg's innovation of developing metal types using special  alloys made production easier. He printed the first book, 'The  Bible', which had only forty two lines, using his printing press.

Johannes Gutenberg
      1398 - 1468

4. What is Publishing?

Publishing comprises of the creation, compilation and mass reproduction of graphic and text images thereby making information available to the public. Books, newspapers, notice, etc. are published to provide information to the society.

5. What are the advantages of Traditional Publishing?

  • Visually Appealing.
  • Tangible and durable.
  • Higher perecived value.
  • No access to technology required.
  • Greater quality control
  • Accepted norm.
  • Valuable, certifiable and collectable
  • Does not require a power source

6. What are the disadvantage of Traditional Publishing ?

  • Books are expensive.
  • Difficult to find a publisher
  • Costly to publish
  • High printing costs
  • Restricted in Multimedia
  • Distribution is labor intensive and costly.
  • Limited number of copies printed
  • Required large storage place.
  • Lower profit margin for the author.

7. Explain the three different stages in publishing.

Publishing process starts when the editor edits content for publishing. Once the content is ready, it is considered to be in production stage. The activities in production stage are classified as prepress jobs, printing and post press jobs. Prepress is the  process of making the document ready for printing. Printing is the stage where the actual printing happens inside a press. Post press jobs include binding cutting, etc. after which the document is in the finished stage.

8. What do you meant by Publishing through print media?

Publishing though print media involves designing the document, printing and preparing it for distribution. The quality of document design, paper quality, paper size, type of press used for printing,
type of binding, etc. determines the quality of publishing through print media.

9. What do you meant by Publishing through electronic media?

The publication of books, periodical, etc in digital format, usually on CD, DVD or as downloadable from Internet, for subscribers or public is called publishing through electronic media or electronic publishing.

10. What are the three activities in the production stage of publishing through print media?

The  activities in production stage are classified as prepress jobs, printing and post press jobs.

Prepress is the process of making the document ready for printing.

Printing is the stage where the actual printing happens inside a  press.

Post press jobs include binding, cutting, etc. after which the document is in the finished stage.

11. Exaplin Prepress.

Prepress is the stage of work that happens between the designing of the page layout up to sending the book for printing in the press. Prepress is an important stage where the visual impact of the presentation is decided. While deciding the layout of a page, the size of book or magazine is an important factor to be considered. After finalising the layout of a page, the text and image content in the publication is
added to the page layout.

Example : DTP(DeskTop Publishing)

12. Name some popular DTP software.

Some of the popular DTP software are Scribus, Adobe InDesign, QuarkXPress

13. Explain the designer role in  Designing.

The basic concept of visual logic must be understood completely by a good designer.  A good designer must have some knowledge  of the traditional and practices of the medium in which he or she working.

Understanding the concept of publication design is also a requirement for an effective designer. Balance, contrast, focus and unity are the things a publication designer must keep in mind. The designer should also b able to work creatively within the confine and guidelines that a publication has established for itself.

A designer should have a good sense of news and should know what his or her publication believes is a good news judgement. A design editor makes many important decisions about the presentation of news for a publication each day.

Finally, a designer should know how to use the hardware and software available for producing the publication.

14.  What do you mean by unity in design ?

Relating the design elements to the idea being expressed strengthens unity.  A design on active aggressive subject would work better with diagonal  direction, course, rough texture, angular lines, etc. A design on quiet passive subject would be better of horizontal lines , soft texture and less tonal contrast are used. Unity in a painting also refers to the  visual linking of verious elements of the work.

15. Explain the elements of Design.

Line : Lines are useful for dividing space and drawing the eye to a specific location. The direction of a line can convey mood. Horizontal lines are calm and quiet, vertical lines suggest movement, while diagonal lines strongly suggest movement and give more of a feeling of energy to a picture.

Shapes : Shapes, geometric or organic, add interest. Shapes are defined by boundaries, such as lines or colour. They are often used to emphasize a portion of the page. Shapes have two dimensions, length and width. They can also be geometric or free-form. A good designer must think in terms of how the
various elements of a design are creating shapes, and how those shapes are interacting.

Colours : Colour is one of the most noticeable elements of a design. It can stand alone, as a background, or can be applied to other elements, like lines, shapes, textures or typography. Colour creates a mood.

Space : White space is the area in a document where there is no text or graphics. When used effectively, white space can be used to guide the reader's eyes exactly where you want them to go.

Space is also a three dimensional volume that can be empty or filled with objects. It has width, height and depth. Space that appears in a two dimensional painting creates an illusion of three dimension and a feeling of actual depth.

Typography : One of the most important parts of design is typography. Typography is the art and technique of arranging type (letters) to make written language readable and beautiful. The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point size, line length, line-spacing, letter-spacing and adjusting the space within letters pairs.

16. Explain the principles of design.

Principles are concept used to organise or arrange the elements of design. The way in which these principles are applied affects the expressive content, or the message of the work.

The priciples of design are balance, proportion, rhythm, emphasis and unity.

Balance : Balance is the distribution of the visual weight of objects, colours, texture and space. In visual images , balance is formal when both sides are symmetrically arranged. Balance is informal when sides are not exactly symmetrical, but the resulting image is still balanced.

Repetition : Repetitive works with a pattern makes the artwork look active. The repetition of elements of design creates unity within the artwork. Repetition with variation is interesting, without variation repetition can become monotonous. Repetition can also give a work a sense of motion.

Contrast : Contrast is the association of opposing elements like opposite colours, tone, direction, etc. It can be contrast in the colour wheel where opposites like red and green, blue and orange, etc. are used.

Contrast allows us to highlight key elements in our design. Contrast focuses on making items stand out by emphasizing differences in size, colour, direction and other characteristics.

Harmony : Harmony is the visually satisfying effect of combining similar, related elements. The combination of adjacent colours on the colour wheel, similar shapes, related textures, etc. Harmony in visual design means all parts of the visual image relate to and complement each other.

Unity : Relating the design elements to the idea being expressed strengthens unity. A design on active aggressive subject would work better with diagonal direction, course, rough texture, angular lines, etc. Unity in a painting also refers to the visual linking of various elements of the work.

Dominance : Dominance raises interest, reducing confusion and monotony. Dominance can be applied to one or more of the elements to give emphasis. A dominant element in the center (horizontally or vertically) creates symmetry, producing a formal, static design. The position of the dominant element (colour, shape, line, etc.) should be used to the advantage of the topic.

17. What is pre-flighting?

Once the graphics file has been created by the designer, it undergoes the next pre-press stage called pre-flight.  In this stage, the file is checked to make sure it contains all the elements necessary for a successful printing.

18. What is crop marks?

Crop marks (trim marks) are lines printed in the corners of the page to show the printer where to trim the paper.

19. What is Bleed?

Bleed refers to printing that goes beyond the edge of the sheet before trimming.

20. What is Margin?

A margin is the area between the main content of a page and the page edges. The margin helps to define where a line of text begins and ends.

Crop marks, bleed and margin are displayed in Figure

21. What is the purpose of creating a proof?

Creating a proof is to ensure that the printed material is of the quality required. This state will be a representation of how the finshed piece will appear when it is printed.

22. Explain the use of Printing Plates.

Printing plates are made for each job and they provide the method for transferring the inked images to the proper place on the paper. The size of a plate depends on the press. Each plate can be used to print a number of pages, depending on the size of the page to be printed.

In the case of colour printing, separate plates are to be prepared for the four colour components cyan, magenta, yellow and black, known as CMYK.

23. What is  color separation?

Colour separation is the process by which original artwork is  separated into individual colour components for printing. By combining CMYK colours, a wide spectrum of colours can be produced  on the printed page. When the colours are combined on paper, the human eye combined on paper, the human eye combines these colours to see the final image.

24. What is lithography?

Lithography is an offset printing technique using plates.

26. Explain offset printing technique.

In offset printing, ink is applied to the printing plate to form an image to be printed. It is then transferred or offset to a rubber blanket. The image on the blanket is then transferred to the paper to produce the printed product. Lithography is an offset printing technique using plates.

The lithographic process for printing is based on the repulsion of oil and water. Lithographic printing is popular for commercial printing of newspapers, books, forms, etc.



27. Why are plates not used in a digital press?


Digital printing refers to methods from a digital image directly to a variety of media. In this type of printing plates are not used. Digital printing can be done using large format, high volume laser or inkjet printers.

26. Harilal is planning to publish a book. Suggest a printing process that can be used for this purpose. Justify your suggestion.


Digital Printing

Digital printing refers to methods of printing from a digital image directly to a variety of media. In this type of printing plates are not used. Digital printing can be done using large format, high volume laser or inkjet printers. Digital printing has a higher cost per page than more traditional offset printing methods. But this price is usually offset by avoiding the cost of all the technical steps required to make printing plates. It also supports the modification of the image (pages to be printed) anytime, which is not possible in offset printing once the plates are made. It also allows on-demand printing, where a book is printed only when an order is received.

27. Explain the uses of  Gravure printing.

Gravure or rotogravure printing is used in flexible packaging printing process. It can be used to print on materials including polyester, nylon, polyethylene, aluminium foils and paper. The cylinder of the gravure printer is engraved with the image to be printed. The cylinder is immersed in ink and its engraved cells store the ink which is transferred to the material to be printed. Its features are good quality image reproduction and low cost per unit on high volume production. Rotogravure printing is a suitable choice to print on laminated packaging for different ingredients.

28. Why is flexography used in mass production when compared to other printing processes?

Flexographic presses are capable of producing good quality printing on many different materials. It is considered as the least expensive and simplest of the printing processes used for printing on packing material. Flexography has a relatively simple operation, similar to the use of a rubber seal and ink stamp pad. The image to be printed is prepared on flexographic plates made of a flexible material, such as plastic, rubber, etc. This plate is then inked and then it is transferred to printing material. Compared to offset and gravure, its ink dries faster which results in faster production, thereby lowering costs. Due to this the use of flexographic printing presses is on the rise.

29. What is the difference between flexographic printing and rotogravure printing?

Flexographic printing is the method of printing on a web press using rubber or photopolymer plates with raised images. Rotogravure printing does not use plates, rather the image is etched directly onto a cylinder. It can be distinguished when looking through a loupe - it has teeth like marks around type and solids.

30. Explain about screen printing.

Screen printing is a simple process for printing. It is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink blocking stencil to receive a desired image. A rubber blade is koved across the screen stencil which forces the ink through the mesh opening on the print surface. Screen printing has to be done on a flat surface and the area being printed should not be under pressure. It can be used to print on a wide variety of materials, including paper, plastics, glass, metals, fabrics and others.

31. What do you mean by post press? List and explain the four major operations that are done during this stage.

Post press is the final stage in the printing process. It involves all the cosmetic or functional changes that are done on the final print. The four major operations in post press are folding, assembling, binding and cutting. There are many additional post press finishing processes such as varnishing, laminating, embossing, perforating, drilling, etc. that improves the appearance or functionality of the printed material.

32. What is Imposition Scheme?

Imposition scheme is the arrangement of pages for printing in such a way that when the sheet is folded, the pages will be in the correct order.

33. Explain folding.

In a printing press, several pages are printed on both sides of a large paper and then they are folded according to an imposition scheme. A folding machine can automatically fold any type of paper according to the imposition scheme for notebooks, textbooks, magazines, brochures, etc.

34. What is assembling?

The assembling/gathering is the process that brings all the printed pages of the final product together in the required order according to the binding style. Assembly processes can be manual, semiautomatic or fully automatic. Manual and semiautomatic assembling requires the attention of a worker. Fully automatic assemblers are kept in line with the binding machines in order to improve efficiency.

35. List the different types of binding.

The popular binding techniques are hard cover bbinding, punch and binding (spiral binding), thermally activated binding, stitched binding, etc.

36. Explain book binding.

Book binding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. The type of binding is usually selected based on the function of the document, the number of pages it contains and the printing budget.

37. Explain the uses of cutting machine.

A cutting machine cuts the stacked printed pages. The cutting blade is powered electrically. Though cutting is generally considered a postpress operation, most lithographic and gravure presses have integrated cutters as well as equipment to perform related operations like perforating.

38. Explain JDF.

Job Definition Format (JDF) is a printing industry standard designed to simplify information exchange between different programs and printing  systems. It is managed by the industry association CIP4 (International Cooperation for the Integration of Processes in Prepress, Press and Postpress Organization). It manages the print, packaging and label work (job) flows.

JDF starts a job ticket with an 'intent' for the job. More JDF details are added later in various steps of the production workflow. A JDF ticket contains information that enables each node to determine what files it needs as input, where they are found and what processes it should perform. After executing a task, it modifies the JDF job ticket to describe what it has done and examines the JDF ticket to determine where accompanying files and instructions should be sent next.

39. What is electronic publishing?

Electronic publishing is the digital publication of e-books, digital magazines andthe development of digital libraries and catalogues.

40. What is the use  of an e-book reader?

An e-book reader is a mobile electronic device that is designed for reading e-books and digital periodicals.

41. What is electronic publishing? What are the different types of electronic publishing?

Electronic publishing is the digital publication of e-books, digital magazines andthe development of digital libraries and catalogues. Electronic publishing takes the format of works published online, on a compact disk, e-mailed or provided in a file format compatible with handheld electronic readers. It is also called e-publishing or digital publishing. It is also called e-publishing or digital publishing. Electronic publishing can be either web based publishing or as digital distribution of content. In web based publishing, information is published in websites. We can browse and use the website to read the material. Websites like publish content over their websites. In the case of digital distribution publishing, the material can be downloaded from a website and can be read using an electronic reading device like mobile phone or e-book reader. Many publishers now publish their books electronically in downloadable format.

42. What is Web based publishing?

Web publishing or online publishing is the process of publishing content on the Internet. It includes creating and uploading websites, updating webpages, and posting blogs online. The published content may include text, images, videos, and other types of media. Websites like Wikipedia, online newspapers, blogs, etc. are examples of web based publishing.

43. You have written a story in English and you wish to publish it electronically. Which type of publishing would you prefer? Why?

Web based publishing

Publishing through blogs does not require much knowledge about the web based technologies. This can be done easily using the user friendly features provided by the popular blogging services like,, etc. Since web publishing does not require physical materials such as paper and ink, the cost of publishing content on the web is almost nothing. Therefore, anyone with basic knowledge of Internet can be a web publisher. It has a vast audience since content posted on the web can be viewed by anyone in the world with an Internet connection. These advantages of web publishing have led to a new era of publishing that was not possible before.

44. What is  digital distribution?

The electronically published materials like e-books, e-journals, etc. can be downloaded from various websites. This type of publishing is called digital distribution.

45. Explain PDF.

PDF (Portable Document Format) was developed by Adobe Systems and first released in 1993. This format was developed to provide a platform independent means of exchanging documents. PDF documents can be read using a wide variety of readers freely available like Adobe Reader, Open, Nitro PDF, etc. PDF files are supported by almost all modern e-book readers, tablets and smartphones. iBook is the native file format for Apple iPad and Kindle is the file format for Amazon's Kindle book reader.

46. Vimala has an e-book reader and a mobile phone with a large screen. Which device will be better for reading while travelling? Why?

The front lit screens in the e-book readers provide a better reading experience. In comparison to tablets, many e-book readers are better than tablets for reading because they are more portable, have better readability in sunlight and have longer battery life. The popular e-book readers are Amazon Kindle, Barnes & Noble Nook, Apple iPad, etc.

Plus 2 Humanities
Kerala (English Medium)

Practice in Related Chapters
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