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1. Define the term foreign policy.

A policy pursued by a nation in its dealing with other nations, designed to achieve national objectives.

2. Which department was established on November 1962?

 The Department of defence production was established in November 1962.

3.Which party was floated by Netaji Subash Chandra bose?

Netaji created a party named Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind Fauj in the year 1942.

4. Mention the major objectives of Nehru's foreign policy?

The major objective of Nehru's foreign policy were to preserve the hard earned sovereignty, protect territorial integrity and promote rapid economic development.

5. Name political parties which wanted India to follow a pro-Us foreign policy.

Parties like Baratiya Jan Sangh, Swatantra party wanted India to follow a pro- us foreign policy.

6.When and where was Afro- Asian conference held?

The Afro- Asian conference was held on 1955 in the Indonesian city of Bandung.

7. When and where the first summit of NAM was held?

The first summit of the NAM was held in cargo from 5th to 12th June 1961.

8. Who was the co-founder of NAM from India?

Jawaharlal Nehru was the co- founder of NAM from India.

9. What is NAM?

NAM stands for Non Aligned Movement based on the presumption that existence of power bloc is not conducive to the world peace.

10.Write an essay on Non Aligned Movement.

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is an international organisation of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. Itwas founded in 1950s; as of 2007, it has 118 members. The purpose of the organisation as stated in the Havana Declaration of 1979 is to ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries"in their "struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, Zionism,and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics". They represent nearly two-third of the Nation’s members and comprise 55% of the world population.
The term "Non-Alignment" itself was coined by Indian Prime Minister Nehru during his speech in 1954 in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations, which were first put forth byChinese Premier Zhou Enlai. Called Panchsheel (five restraints), these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement.

11. When did China annex Tibet?

China annexed Tibet in the year 1950.

12. Which treaty was signed by Nehru and General Ayubkhan in 1960?

The Indian - Pakistan Indus waters treaty was signed by Nehru and General Ayub khan in 1960.

13. What are the five principles of panchasheel?

Panchsheel is the five principles of peaceful coexistence which were enunciated  by  the prime minister of India in 1954 as the basis for internaitonal co operation. They are

  • Mutual respect for each other's Territorial integrity and sovereignty.
  •  Non aggression
  •  Non interference in each other's internal affairs.
  • Equality and mutual benefits.
  • Peaceful co-existence

14.Why did china allege that the Government of India was allowing anti- china activities?

China annexed Tibet in 1950. The Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama accompanied the Chinese Premier during his official visit to India in 1956 and informed Nehru about the worsening situation in Tibet. After that Dalai Lama sought and obtained political asylum in India in 1959.

15. What is the "initiative of five"?

The founding fathers of the Non Aligned movement were apart from Nehru of India. Sukarmo of Indonesia and Tito of Yugoslavia were Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt and kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. Their actions were known as the initiative of five.

16. Why was there a considerable unease in Indo-US relations during the 1950s?

After independence, India decided not to join either the US blocor USSR bloc. India chose the path of non alignment. While India was trying to convince the other developing countries about the policy of non-alignment, Pakistan joined the US-led military alliances. The US was not happy about India's independent initiatives and the policy of non alignment, Therefore there was a considerable unease in Indo –US relations during the 1950s.

 17. Mention one cause which strained friendly relation of India with China?

China annexed Tibet in 1950 and this removed a historical buffer between two countries. Initially the Government of India did not oppose this openly but when India had information about the suppression of Tibetan culture, the Indian government grew uneasy. The Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama sought and obtained asylum in India in 1969.

18. Why did Nehru regard the foreign relations as an essential indicator of dependence? State any two reasons with examples to support your reading.

Nehru regarded the conduct of foreign relation as an essential inductor of independence because of the following:

  • He accepted the policy of non alignment. The main cause to accept the policy of non alignment was regional density of India was defense of sovereignty and economic development.
  •  India did not want to make friendship with one group and to make the adversary of the other group. The events held in Hungary and Vietnam have more significance in the context.

19. Write a note on cold war.

Cold war is a state of apparent peace between two powerful peace between two powerful countries or blocs, but they show malice against each other through peers and radio. The term was first used by Bernard M. Maruch while addressing the South Carolina Legislative body on April 16, 1947.

20. Write the principles of the Non aligned movement.

The five principles were:

1. Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty.

2. Mutual non-aggression.

3. Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs.

4. Equality and mutual benefit.

5. Peaceful co-existence

 21. Discuss India changing relations with China.

  • Panchsheel was formulated by Nehru and Chou-en-Lai in 1954, after this trade agreement was signed.
  • Two countries took part in Bandung Conference of Afro-Asian nations in 1955.
  • Again differences arose over Tibet and China made an attack on India on 20 October 1962 and captured 6400 square kilometer of Indian Territory.
  • The relations of two countries became cordial since 1975. In February 1979,External Affairs Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee visited China; then again diplomatic relations was restored.
  • In May 1980, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi met the Chinese Premier Hu Kuo-feng at Belgrade.
  • The late Prime Minister Mr. Rajeev Gandhi was the first ever-Indian Prime Minister  who visited China in 1980 since the visit of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • In 1992 President R. Venkatraman visited China, then Prime Minister P.V. Narsimha Rao in and 1993 Vice President K.R. Narayana in 1994.
  • The Chinese Prime Minister Lipeng visited India in 1991 and the Chinese President Jiang Zemin was the first Head of State of China who visited India in November 1996 since its independence.
  • The Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Chinese President Jiang Zemin had started the new era of relations; both nations signed a pact on confidence Building Measures (CBMs) in the military field along the frontiers and to demarcate the LAC (line of actual control).
  • An especial stress was given on Panchsheel. In June 2003, the Indian Prime Minister Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee made a historic trip to China and started a new era of relations. China had agreed to be acquainted with merger of Sikkim with India and further stopped illustrating the state as independent country in its maps.
  • It was also agreed to start border trade through Nathula Pass in Sikkim. During Kargil War of 1999 China had supported India for the first time. Now Indo- Chinese relations reached a new phase, which is significant for mutual benefits of India and China and peace of the Asia.
  • India and China cordially resolved the Tibet matter by a Treaty on 29 April 1954.
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