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1.    Explain the Revolution of 1857?

      The British rule in India begin in the battle of Placcy in 1757.  After 100 years the Indians challenged the British rule and attempt to put an end to it in 1857.  A hundred years of British rule had brought misery by the Indians in general.  Indians were to regarded every where subject to all sorts if basification.  Indian’s were considered to as  scaves.  Sampling to serve the interest of the British’s and there home land in Britain.  Therefore the people of this country suffered in so many ways.  But they failed to put up a     all even fairly with spread, resistance to the British power in India   before 1857.  Thus the revolt of 1857 was the revolt of the populous of discontent.  That had been building up for the long time against the different policies persuaded By British In India.  In 1857 a year after the departure of Iatheuges   of great rebellion broke out in India.  British historians regarded it as “Sepoy Muteny”.   But some modern   Indian historians regarded this event as a real war of independence an attempt on the part of Indians to free themselves from British domination.  In 1957 the Independence India celebrated the century of the revolt paid damage to the Marty’s of 1857.

2.    What are the main event of the First War Independence?

      The immediate context of the war was provided by introduction of cartridge that had GREASED paper covers. At that time a new rifle called the ENFIELD RIFLE was supplied to the soldiers. The cartridges to be used in the rifle were greased with fat. Before leaching cartridge on to the rifle, the soldiers had to bite off the ends with their teeth.  A rumour   spread that the cartridges were greased with the Fat of cows and pigs. The soldiers believed that this greasing was international.  It is clear that   it was a taboo for a Hindu Soldier to bite the fat of the cow and for a Muslim soldier to bite that the fat of a pig.  Both refused to use these cad ridges.  When it was made mandatory to use the cartridges, the Indian soldiers, were increased.  The trouble first began at Barrack pore where many Indian soldiers refused to use the greased cartridges.  A Brahmin sepoy, name of   MANGAL PANDE of the 34 to Infantry at Barrack pore    refused to  use the cartridge and attacked the  Adjutant  of this regiment.  His action was a result of the fear, in the sepoy   Mind  that use of such cartridge  would mean loss of their caste and religion. Mangal Pande however was arrested and hanged to death on 8th April, 1857. In the eyes of his fellow sepoy’s he was not a criminal but a martyr who had laid down his life for the sake of religion.  Within a month of this incident upspring started in Murat, Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Jhansi and other places.

3.   What are the main causes of the war?

      As started in the beginning the revolt of the sepoys  in 1857 assumed the proportion of a war of independence because  of its interlinkage with the political, social, religious, economic and  military discontentment.

Military Causes :-

      In 1856 the general service enlistment Act was passed by the British parliament. According to this Act, the Indian soldiers could be sent overseas.  The Brahmin soldiers saw in it a slandor to the caste. According to an acceptal  belief.   It was considered a taboo for a Brahmin to cross the seas.  This General Service enlistment Act disregarded the feeling of the Indian troops.  Which led to a feeling of resentment among  them.   As a consequence of this they were angry with the British.

Religious Causes :-

    The British brought about several social changes which affected the religious traditions of the people.  The practice of sati was made illegal and punishable by law. Laws are enacted to forbid Infanticide allow remarriage of widows and stop the practice of polygamy.  Infact such changes were strongly advocated by Indian reformers like Raja Rammohan Roy, Swami Dayananda  Saraswathi  and others.  But some people in India suspected that   these changes were imposed by the British rule with vested interest.

Economic Causes:-

    The East India Company   made huge profits at the expense of the people of India.   The company purchased textiles Indigo, spices and food grains from India and sold them abroad at   exorbitant prices.  By buying and reporting Indian goods, the company encouraged their production in India.  But gradually  the Indian  textiles  began to compete with the textiles manufactured in England.  The  British put  pressure  on the East India company  to forbid the sale of  Indian  textiles in England.  The British Government then put restrictions on the import of Indian textiles besides imposing heavy import duties on such goods.

Political Causes :-

    The great of the British for territorial expansion generated a deep   hatred among Indians.   The political moves of the British were viewed warily was they had resorted to unfair and deceitful means in their dealings with the native princes. Lord Dalhousie deceitfully annexed the states of Satara, Jhansi and Nagpur by using the Doctrine Laps.  According to the doctrine if a ruler died with out an heir to succeed him. His adopted   son  could  neither inherit  the throne  nor the  title  and in such  cases  the state was to be  annexed  to the British  empire in India, Rani Lexmibai  of Jhansi  was not allowed to  adopt a son.  Similarly Nance Sahib, the adopted son of Peshwas Baji  Rao 11, was   not acknowledged as the  rightful heir  to the throne.  This policy was resented by the local rulers and people.

4.   What are the importants of Queens proclamation?

     The Queens proclamation of 1858 has an important, phase in history of India. It contained significant assurance and sweet promises to the people of India. Dr. Eshwar Prasad observes “The Proclamation brought a new heaven on earth.   It promised them peace and properly protection of religion, Equality of treatment and above all a shere.  In the higher services of India.  The Indian looked upon it as Charles of   right and liberty.  In the words of Surendranath Banarjie,   “the proclamation is our magna carta and orrospel  of politial deliverance”  to the British  this proclamation was  supposed to be the basis  of  British  rule in India  for the next  sixty years.  The Act of 1858 is termed as the Act for the Battle Government of India.  It transferred from the company to the crown.  It rank the death kill of the English East India Company. The Act is also significant for giving a moral below to the dual govt. at home.  It put an end to the quarrel between the board at control and the fourth of directors.  It enables the home govt to exercise greater control over the Indian affairs.  The post of the secretary   of state became more dignified and responsible.  The act enabled the Indian princes to have direct contact and correspondence, with the crown.  It also evoked the interest and enthusiasm of the Indians in British administration freedom of religion.  The protection of laws admission to      service on the bases of meat etc.  inspired new hopes in them.

5.  What you mean by  Criticism of war 1857?

      Thought the act was very significant.   It did not grand political right to the Indians since they were not given any share. In the administrative of the country. According to Cunningham “the assumption of the government of India by the crown was rather a formed then a substantial change”   as far as India was concerned  them was  no change in administrative.

6.  What is the policy of “Divide and Rule”?

     The British followed the policy of “Divide and Rule” During the war, the Hindu and eh Muslims fought together. The British first victimized the Muslims and  favoured  the Hindus.  After some time  they reversed the policy of treatment.  This policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ ultimately encouraged the partition of India on the eve of her Independence in 1947.  

7.  What is End of Peshwaship and the Mughal rule?

      The war also ended the  Peshwaship and the Mughal rule.  As Nana Sahib, the adopted son of Peshwas Baji RaoII,  who had  taken  part in the  war could not be  traced, the office  of the Peshwa was  abolished.  Similarly the title of Mughal Emperor was also abolished with the death of Bahadur shah 11 in 1862, who had taken an active part in the war with this war, the great mughal dynasty founded by Babar in 1526 ended.

8.    What are the main consequences of the war 1857?

       The war Independence of 1857 did not succeeded in achieving its aim.  But it had very far reaching consequences. The first important consequences of the war was the end of the rule of the East India Company.   In 1858 the British parliament   passed the government of India Act, by which the government of India was transferred to the British queen and her parliament.   Thus the rule of the company came to an end.   The Act Published the Board of Directors of the company and   the responsibility of the Government of India was passed on to a  separate minister in the British  parliament.  The minister was known as the secretary of state for India.  He was to be advised by a council consisting of fifteen members.  The Government – general was made the   viceroy that is the representative of the British sovereign in India.  Lord Canning became the first viceroy under the Act.

9.    What is the main Result of the The First War 1857?

         The revolt of 1857 marked the close of an Era and beginning of a new one in the history of British revolt in India.  It resulted in significant changes on the administrative structure policy of government of India and   the British attitudes.  It ended the rule of East India company to the grand was affected by the act of 1858. The secretary of state in British cabinet took the peace of the president of the board of control. The queens proclamation road out first November 1858, was in the most friendly language.  In addition to constitution changes the proclamation announced the appointment of Lord Caning the Governor General as the   first viceroy  of India.  The Queen promised to respect the rights dignity and honor, of the native. Princes and to pay due regard to the ancient rights, usage and customs of India. The policy of annexation was given up a policy of justice benevolence and toleration was proclaimed and complete religious toleration was given to the Indians. They were also assured of appointments to the office of the Government services irrespective of  race  or  Creed.  The promotion of the people welfare was proclaimed to us the fundamental aim of British policy in India.  In their own prosperity will be our strength in their containment our security and in their gratitude our best reward.  The proclamation   of Queen Victoria came to be hailed as the Magna Carta  or Indian  people.

10.   What are the causes for the failure the Revolution 1857?

     Various Factors contributed to the failure of the revolt.  It did not extend over those whole of India. Places like East Bengal. Sind, Rajput and Madras were not affected majority of Indian princes the legal    to the British.  The Rebellion was not probably lead or organized.  They were few capable leaders on the rebel side the lack of proper co-ordination resulted in the pre- matered out break and it’s upsetting the plan of the rebels.   There was no unity among the rebels on the other hand the British had advantage of superior equipments extensive resources and command of the  sec, the telegraph were of immense  help to them during  the time  of revolt.  The revolt lacked positive teleological or intellectual bages.  The movement that drew ness strength from the dispassed princes and the title holders whose only aim was to safe guard their feudal interest.  As the result the revolt of represent the clash of old and new on the material in ideological and religious plates.  

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