1. What are the characteristics of organisms
• Highly organised and complex entities formed of one or more cells.
• Carry out the numerous chemical processes.
• Acquire and use energy for metabolism.
• Respond to changes in environment and maintain a constant internal environment.
• Grow in size, develop and produce offspring similar to them (i.e. growth and reproduction.
• Adapt to environmental changes and gradually evolve into new types of organisms(i.e., adaptation and evolution)
2. What are called cells?
Growth in plants and animals involves an increase in volume through the formation of new protoplasm with or without the division of their structural units called cells.
3. What is intussusception?
The process of growth in living things is called growth by intussuception.
4. What is the principle of biogenesis?
Living organisms come from pre-existing organisms and this is the principle of biogenesis.
5. What are the levels of biological organisation.
Biological organisation starts with submicroscopic molecular level passes through microscopic cellular level, and microscopic or macroscopic organismal level .It ends in ecosystems and the biosphere.
6. Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds are the glue of living things. Atoms combine to form molecules. A molecule may be defined as 'two or more atoms linked by chemical bonds'.
The simplest units of carbohydrates are the simple sugar or monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose and galactose. Simple sugars are found in fruit juices, honey and some vegetables.
They are double sugars. Two monosaccharides may join by covalent bond and form double sugars or disaccharides, such as sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar) and maltose. Double sugars are often added to foods such as bread, soup, canned vegetables and fruit.
They are complex starches and cellulose. Simple sugars or monosaccharide subunits join together to form polysaccharides. Starch is the principle carbohydrate storage product of higher plants. Starch is found in grains, beans, peas and potatoes. Starches require a period of digestive action before they can be used by the body.
Certain lipids may also contain elements, such as phosphours (P) and nitrogen (N). The membranes of cells are formed of modified fats called phospholipids.
11. What is organisation?
The manner in which smaller components of any system are arranged in a hierarchy to coordinate with one another towards a goal.
12. Expand ACTH. What is its molecular weight?
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone, 4500.
13. Approximately how many chemicals are present in a cell?
14. What is anabolism?
.Anabolism is the set of constructive metabolic processes where the energy released by catabolism is used to synthesize complex molecules.
15. What is catabolism?
The breakdown reactions in an organism.
16. Mention the first law of thermodynamics.
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
17. What is second law of thermodynamics?
Any system, including the universe, when left to itself tends to increase entropy.
18. What is entropy?
A term that may be regarded as disorder or randomness.
19. What are open and closed system?
A system which has a continuous inflow of energy, directly or indirectly is an open system; a closed system has no exchange of matter with the surroundings.
20. Define the term homeostasis.
A Self regulatory living steady state of a system.
21. What this statement depicts? 'Nothing lives forever, yet life continues'.
This shows reproduction in organism.
22. What is reproduction?
The perpetuation of organisms.
23. What are the molecules of heredity?
24. What is adaptation?
Structural and functional features which enable the organisms to survive and reproduce within the limits of a particular environment.
25. Give the peculiar characteristic of the flower of on orchid Ophrys muscifera.
Flowers resemble the females of a species of wasp.
26. Give the life spans of monkey and Sequoia.
26 years and 3000 - 4000 years.
27. Arrange the following in ascending order: population, atoms, individual, molecules, biosphere, community, cells, ecosystem, tissue and organs.
Atom, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, individuals, population, community, ecosystem and biosphere.
28. What is a life span?
The longest time over which the life of organisms may extend, i.e., birth till death.
29. Define clinical death in man.
Man is clinically death when there is no pulse and the pupils are fixed and dialated showing no reaction to the light.
30. Give definition of life.
Life is a unique, complex organisation of molecules, expressing itself through chemical reactions which lead to growth, development, responsiveness, adaptation and reproduction.