|History & Civics
1. What is meant by the term Sovereign as mentioned in the Preamble to the Constitution of India ?
Ans: Sovereign means a state is free to conduct her internal as well as external affairs without being dictated by any outside foreign power.
2. Name the body that framed the Constitution of India ?
Ans: The Constituent Assembly framed the Constitution.
3. What do you understand by the Preamble to Constitution ?
Ans: The Preamble is an introductory part of the Constitution that declares the aims and objectives of the Constitution.
4. Mention any two main ideas contained in the Preamble to the Constitution .
Ans: Democratic and Republic are two main ideas contained in the Preamble to the Constitution.
5. State the importance of the Preamble to the IndianConstitution.
Ans: The Preamble is important because:
(i) It clearly states that the people are the highest authority in India.
(ii) It declares the aims and objectives of our Constitution.
(iii) Any doubt about the meaning of any Act of the Constitution can be clarified by checking the words of the Preamble.
It indicates the secular, socialist and democratic basis of the Constitution.
6. In what way is India a 'sovereign democratic republic' ?
Ans: India is Sovereign because:
(i) She is no longer a part of the British Empire.
(ii) She is the master of her own destiny.
(iii) She can chalk out independently domestic and foreign policies without being dictated by any outside power.
India is democratic because :
(i) The power to determine all issues of public policy is in the hand of the people.
(ii) The citizens have been granted the right to contest elections for the Union Parliament, State Legislatures and the Local Bodies like Municipalities and Village Panchayats without any specific condition relating to property, education etc.
(iii) India in a true way is democratic because here the government is of the people, for the people and by the people.
India is Republic because the head of the Indian Republic - the President is elected by the elected members of Parliament and State Legislative Assemblies for a fixed term of 5 years with no hereditary rights.
7. Why did the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976 insert the words 'Socialist' and 'Secular' in the preamble ?
Ans: According to 42nd Constitution Amendment Act 1976, the word socialist was added to regulate the economy in the interest of the society as a whole and to ensure a just and equitable distribution of the wealth of the country.
The word secular was added to promote communal harmony and good-will by giving due respect to all religions.
8. Explain the term 'Constitution'.
Ans: Constitution is a comprehensive legal document that declares the basic laws to govern the country.
9. Why did Cabinet Mission come to India and what did it recommend ?
Ans: Cabinet Mission came to India with the object of setting up complete self-government in India.It recommended to constitute a Constituent Assembly to draw up the future Constitution of India.
10. Who framed the Constitution of India ?
Ans: Constituent Assembly framed the Constitution of India.
11. When was the 'body that framed the Constitution of India' constituted ?
Ans: On 9th December 1946, the body that framed the Constitution was constituted.
12. Who was the permanent chairman of the constituent Assembly ?
Ans: Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the permanent Chairman of the Constituent Assembly.
13. How can you say that the Constituent Assembly was secular in nature ?
Ans: The Constituent Assembly was secular in nature as it represented all sections of the Indian people.
14. When was the drafting committee constituted ?
Ans: On 29th August 1947, the drafting committee was constituted.
15. Under whose chairmanship the Constitution was drafted ?
Ans: Under the Chairmanship of Dr.B.R.Ambedkar, the Constitution was drafted.
16. When was the Constitution adopted ?
Ans: On 26th November 1949, the Constitution was adopted.
17. When did the Constitution of India come into force ?
Ans: On 26th January 1950, the Constitution of India came into force.
18. Why did the Constitution of India come into force on 26th January ?
The 26th January was deemed to be an appropriate day for the promulgation of the Constitution, as this date had been celebrated annually in India as 'Independence Day', ever since the famous resolution regarding complete independence of the country was passed by the Indian National Congress at its Lahore Session in December 1929. The first Independence Day was celebrated on 26th January 1930. From 1930 onwards the nationalists renewed their pledge on 26th January.
19. Mention the number of Articles and Schedules in the Constitution when it came into force.
Ans: 395 Articles and 8 Schedules.
20. Name two women who were the members of Constituent Assembly.
Ans: Mrs. Sarojini Naidu and Mrs. Vijayalakshmi Pandit were among the women members of the Assembly.
21. What do the words 'we the people of India' in the Preamble signify ?
Ans: The words 'we the people of India' in the Preamble signify that the people of India are the ultimate source of sovereignty under the Constitution.
22. Explain the nature of the state, the framers of the Constitution sought to establish in India.
Ans: Nature of a state is that India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic and Republic country.
23. What are the main ideals contained in the Preamble to the Constitution ?
Ans: The main ideals are - Justice, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity and Integrity.
24. Whose will is expressed in the Preamble to the Constitution ?
Ans: Will of the people of India is expressed in the Preamble to the Constitution.
25. What was added to the Preamble by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976 ?
Ans: The words Socialist and Secular were added by 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act 1976.
26. State one reason, why the Constitution makers intended to establish a secular policy in India.
Ans: Constitution makers intended to establish a secular policy in India because India is a country of many religions and secularism brings communal harmony.
27. Mention what the Preamble states about Sovereign Socialistic pattern.
Ans: In sovereign pattern the state is free to conduct her internal as well as external affairs without being dictated by any foreign power.
In socialist pattern there is equitable distribution of national income and opportunities among all sections of the people.
28. What is the main feature of a Republican form of government ?
Ans: The main feature of Republican form of government is the power vested in the hand of elected representative (Head of the State) for fixed period of time with no hereditary rights.
29. The Preamble to the Constitution describes India as Democratic. What is the main feature of Democratic System ?
Ans: In democratic system the power to determine all issues of public policy resides in the people.
30. What does the Preamble say about Equality?
Ans: The Preamble ensures the citizens equality of status and opportunity for the development of what is best in them.
31. What does the Preamble say about Fraternity ?
Ans: Fraternity means brotherhood which spreads the spirit of uniting all the people of different background.
32. What type of justice does the Preamble want for the Indian citizens ?
Ans: The Preamble wants justice for the citizens in all its three forms, social, economic and political.
33. What type of liberty does the Preamble want for the Indian citizens?
Ans: The Preamble wants liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship for the Indian citizens.
34. Name two new words added to the Preamble of our Constitution.
Ans: Socialist and Secular.
35. In which year and by which Amendment Act were the words 'Socialist' and 'Secular' added to the Preamble ?
Ans: In 1976 by 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act which came into force on 3rd January 1977.
36. Is the Preamble Justiciable ?
Ans: The Preamble is not justiciable.
37. What was the Constituent Assembly ?
38. How can we say that this body was 'Mini India' ?
39. What was the role of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in framing the Constitution ?
40. Using 'The manner in which it was constituted ' as the main point explain the Constituent Assembly:
41. Who were the prominent membersof the Constituent Assembly?
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, C. Rajagopalachari and others were the prominent leaders.
42. With reference to the Preamble to the Constitution of India , explain why is India considered as a secular state ?
Ans: India is considered a secular state because:
43. Describe the essential features of a socialist state.
Ans: India is considered a socialist state because:
44. How does the Indian Constitution provide the basis of social, economic and political democracy ?
The Indian Constitution has provided the basis of political democracy by accepting the principles of adult franchise, equality between citizens, freedom of speech, expression and joint electorates.
Social democracy implies equal social treatment to all without granting any one special privileges based on race, religion, caste or sex.
Economic democracy denotes that the material resources of the country are used not for selfish interests but for the common good.
45. The Preamble resolves to secure to all citizens of India 'Justice and Liberty' . In this context :
(a) Explain what is meant by Justice ?
(b) State clearly how the Constitution lays emphasis on each of the following:
(i) Social Justice
(ii) Economic Justice
(iii) Political Justice.
Ans(a) : Justice is the quality by which we give to everyone what is his due in all fairness in political, social and economic fields.It is opposed to wrong and unfair treatment of people.To ensure justice India has an independent judiciary free from the influence of the legislature and the executive.
Ans(b): (i) Social Justice implies that all citizens are treated equally irrespective of their caste, religion, creed, sex, title etc.
(ii) Economic Justice implies that the rich and the poor are treated alike and the gap between them is bridged.
(iii) Political Justice means equal right to all citizens to participate in the political process without any distinction of race, caste, creed, religion or place of birth.
46. In the context of the Preamble to the Constitution explain: The terms Equality and Fraternity
Ans: (i) The term 'Equality' means equality of status and opportunity.
(ii) The Indian Constitution guarantees to its citizens not only political equality but also social and economic equality.
(iii) There can be no freedom of liberty without equality. Fraternity implies friendship among a group of people (the people of India) sharing common interests.
(iv) In a country like India, where people belonging to different religions, languages, castes and communities live, the spirit of brotherhood among all sections of society assumes special importance.
47. In the context of the Preamble to the Constitution explain: The significance of the Preamble.
Ans: The Preamble is significant because:
(i) It declares that the source of the Constitution is the people of India.
(ii) It declares the ideals of the state - Justice, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity and Unity of the people.
(iii) It declares the nature of the state - Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic and Republic.
(iv) It contains the 'basic structure' of our Constitution.
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