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 1.       What is commercial livestock rearing ? Write four characteristics of commercial livestock rearing?

Ans.    Commercial livestock rearing :

            Rearing of animals is done scientifically and is for commercial use.

            Characteristics of commercial livestock rearing :

             •   Special breeds of animals are reared to give maximum yields of milk or meat.

             •    Emphasis is laid on genetic improvement, disease control and health care of animals.

             •    Cultivation of fodder crops, processing of milk and meat and packaging of animal products is carried out mechanically and on scientific lines.

             •     Commercial livestock rearing is practised in developed countries.

2.         What is the meaning of transhumance ? State four characteristic of pastoral nomadism?

Ans.     Seasonal migration of people with their animals is known as transhumance.

            Characteristics of pastoral nomadism :

            •    It is a subsistence activity depending on animals.

            •    People do not live a settled life, they are called nomads.

            •    The animals depend entirely on natural vegetation, no fodder crops are grown.

            •     Pastroal nomadism is practised in areas having either too hot and dry or too cold climates. For example, Sahel and Sahara in Africa, Tundra region in Eurasia, West Africa.

3.         What is mining ? Name the two types of mining. Give one characteristic of each types of mining?

Ans.     Mining : Removing the rock materials from the earth's surface for processing, so that they are made more beneficial.

            Two types of mining are :

            (i)  Surface mining (open cast, quarrying).

           (ii)  Underground mining.

           (i)   Surface mining : Sedimentary or bedded ores lying  close to the surface are called open cast mines. At present about 90 percent of all mines and 99  percent of non-metallic mines are surface mines.

           (ii)  Underground mining: In this kind of mining, vertical or inclined shafts and horizontal tunnels are made and connected with underground galleries. Rocks are extracted and transported to surface through these passages.

4.          What is pastoral nomadism ? State its characteristics?

Ans.     Pastoral nomadism is a subsistence activity depending on animals.

            Characteristics of pastoral nomadism :

           •     No settled life of the people.

           •     Animals depend only on natural vegetables.

           •     Each nomadic community occupies a well defined territory.

           •     These people are aware of the seasonal changes in the availability of pasture and water.

           •      Nomads are always on the move with their animals.

            •    Animals like sheep, goats, camels, cattle, horses and donkeys are reared by these pastoral nomads.

5.         Explain primary, secondary and tertiary activities of humans with suitable examples?

Ans.     Primary activities : Pertain to the extraction of raw materials from the earth's surface. Hunting, gathering, pastrolism, fishing, forestry, mining and agriculture are the examples.

             Secondary activities include industries that transform raw materials into finished goods having higher values. For example, manufacturing cotton textiles from cotton and iron and steel from iron ore come under secondary activities.

            Tertiary activities include all kinds of services provided to people such as education, health, transport and trade.

6.         State three characteristics of tertiary and quaternary activities?

Ans.     Characteristics of tertiary activities :

             •    All kinds of services provided to people include tertiary activities.

             •    Increase the efficiency or the productivity of the people engaged in other activities

             •    These activities are also called service sector.

             •    The people engaged in these activities do not involve in direct production.

             •    The people engaged in these activities earn more.

             •     Education, health, transport and trade are the examples.

            Characteristics of quaternary activities :

             •    Special types of services relating to high intellectual activities.

             •     It refers to the more intellectual occupations, whose task is to think, research and develop ideas.

             •     Quaternary activities characterised by the highest incomes.

             •     They are of a higher degree of mobility in the process of career advancement.

             •     Education information, research and development are the examples of this category.

7.         How has the nature of mining in the world undergone changes over time ? Explain it with three suitable examples from different periods?

Ans.     Nature of mining activity has gone many changes over the years.

            •   Early period or ancient period: Picking up of minerals by the slaves, prisoners through the shoveling and removing soil.

            •    Middle ages: Mining was considered a noble profession. Mining was done by professionals like guilds and organisations through drilling tunnels.

            •    Modern period: Mechanized mining by blasting rocks and lifting ores with work force.

8.         What are economic activities ?

Ans.    Human activities which generate income are called economic activities.

9.         What are the four groups of economic activities ?

Ans.     Economic activities are broadly grouped into primary, secondary, teritary and quaternary activities.

10.       Give examples of primary activities.

Ans.     Example : Land, water, vegetation, building materials and minerals are earth's resources.

11.        Explain the causes for adopting pastoralism?

Ans.      •   At some stage in the early people realised that hunting is an unsustainable activity.

              •  They might have thought of domestication of animals.

              •   People living in different climatic conditions selected and domisticated animals found in their regions.

12.       What are the two features on which animal rearing depends ?

Ans.     Animals rearing depend on geographical factors and technological development.

13.       At what levels is animal rearing practised ?

Ans.     Animal rearing is today practised either at the subsistence or at the commercial level.

14.        Why has hunting been banned in India ?

Ans.     Hunting has been banned in India because of the following reasons :

             •   Large scale hunting in the past has decreased the wildlife in the country.

             •   Numerous species have become either extinct or endangered .

             •   The beauty of our forests has depleted fast.

             •   They would be able to hand over a rich  wildlife treasure to our next generations.

15.        Find out other areas and the names with which shifting cultivation is done?

Ans.     Areas                                                       Names

            Baster (Chhattisgarh)                               Dipa

            Madhya Pradesh                                       Bewar, Dahiya

            Andhra Pradesh                                        Podu or Peuda

            Orissa                                                       Pama, Dabi, Komau

            Western Ghats                                         Kumari

            South Western Rajasthan                        Volre

            Himalayas                                                 Khil

           Jharkhand                                                  Kuruwa

16.       There is low yield per hectare but high per person in extensive commercial grain cultivation. Why does this happen ?

Ans.     •  It happens due to the fact that these areas are sparsely populated.

             •  If  divide the total yield by the number of people engaged in this cultivation, the product comes high.

17.       What is collective farming?

Ans.    Collective farming is the type of farming which is based on social ownership of the means of production and collective labour.

18.        Have you ever read about mine fires and flooding of coalmines in India ?

Ans.     Yes.

              We are still horrified when we remember.

              -  Chasnale mine mishap in which several miners were killed in the flooding of the mine.

              -  Jharia coal mines have witnessed several fires killing miners instantly in 2006.

19.         Why inhabitants of coastal and plain regions are engaged in fishing and agricultural activity respectively ? What are the physical and social factors which affect the type of primary activities in different regions ?

Ans.      Inhabitants of coastal and plain regions are engaged in fishing and agricultural activity because of the following reasons.

              •   Coastal areas have water in abundance.

                  - Sea water has plenty of fish.

                  - People of coastal areas can easily catch fish and earn their livelihood.

             •    In plain regions soil is flat and fertile.

                  - Water is also available at shallow depths.

                  - It is harnessed easily for irrigation.

                  - Hence people in these areas are engaged in agriculture.

20.        What is subsistence agriculture ? What are its two types ?

             •   Subsistence agriculture is the type of agriculture in which the farming areas consume all, or nearly so, of the products locally grown.

             •    It is grouped in two types.

            i.  Primitive subsistence agriculture.

            ii.  Intensive subsistence agriculture.

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