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1.How is migration an integral part of our life?


      • Migration is an integral part of our life in respect of redistribution of population over time and space.
      • In the past people came to India from central, west and Southeast Asia and got settled in the country.
      • Actually the history of India is a history of the waves of migrants who came to India and settled one after another in different parts.

2. What did renowned poet Firaque Gorakhpuri say about migration?


       The renowned poet Firaque Gorakhpuri said about migration in the following  words.

                                        Sar Zamin-E-Hind Par Aqwam Ke Firaque
                                        Carvan Baste Gaye, Hindostan Banta Gaya

       (The carvanas of people from all parts of the world kept on coming and settling in India and led to the formation of India)

3. Why have people from India been migrating to other places?


      People from India have been migrating other places from time immemorial in search of better job opportunities, better living conditions.

      These places/regions included countries of the Middle East, West European countries, UAS, Canada, Australia and South East Asia.

4. Where were millions of indentured labourers sent to during the British period?


          During British period millions of the indentured labourers were sent to:

       - Maurititus, Caribbean islands (Trinidad, Tobago and Guyana), Fiji and South Africa by British from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

      - To Reunion Island, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Surinam by French and Dutch.

     - To Angola, Mozambique from Goa, Daman and Diu by the Portugues to work as plantation workers.

5. What was the timebound contract?


     -  All such migrations were covered under the time - bound contract known as Girmit Act (Indian Emigration Act).

     - The living conditions of these indentured labourers were not better than the slaves.

6. Comment on the second wave of migrants from India during the British period?


  •  The second wave of migrants ventured out into the neighboring countries in recent times as professionals, artisans , traders and factory workers, in search of economic opportunities to     Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei and African countries.

           - The trend still continues.

7. Why was there a steady flow of India's semi-skilled and skilled labour?


  • There was a steady outflow of India's semi-skilled and skilled labour in the wake of the oil boom in West Asia in the 1970s.
  • There was also some outflow of entrepreneurs, storeowners, professionals, businessmen to Western countries.  

8. Describe the third wave of migrants from India?


  • Third wave of migrant comprised of professionals like Doctors, Engineers (1960s onwards), Software engineers, Management consultants, Financial experts, Media persons (1980s onwards), and others migrated to countries such as USA, Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand and Germany, etc.

9. What were the major features of these professionals?


  • These professionals enjoy the distinction of being one of highly educated, the highest earning and prospering groups.
  • After liberalisation, in the 90s education and knowledge-based Indian emigration has made Indian Diaspora one of the most powerful diasporas in the world.
  • In all these countries, Indian Diaspora has been playing an important role in the development of the respective countries.

10. Explain migration?


  • The change of place of residence for a comparatively long period of time is called migration.
  • Local movement, movement for short duration and circular movements are not migration.
  • A migrant is one who is enumerated at a place other than the place of his birth.
  • Population movements is related to the changes in social political and economic environments, in the region of origin of in the receiving region.

11. Explain the causes of male-female migration?


     The causes of male - female migration are :

Males Females
  • Work and employment opportunities 38%.
  • Marriage, only 20%
  • Work and employment for females, only 3%.
  • Marriage 65%

12. Why is female marriage migration low in Meghalaya different?


      Because in Meghalaya the family setup is maternal, husband has to shift to wife's place for the times to come.

13. Describe the pull and push factors of migration?


  • Pull and push factors:

           The conditions of the recipient region also offer attraction and inducement to the intending migrants to come over. These factors are called as pull factors.

         - Millions of people are attracted by big cities like Mumbai, Kolkata and Delhi due to opportunities they provide for better living conditions.

  • On the other hand, factors compelling people to leave the place of residence are called push factors.

         - Heavy pressure of population, poverty of the farmers and high incidence of unemployment are included in push factors.

  • Only 27.4 per cent of total population of 843 crore persons were enumerated as migrants in 1991 census.

         - The percentage was 30.6 in 1971 and 31.2 in 1981.

  • Out of he total migrant population 62.14 per cent were born within the district of enumeration, it is called intra-district migration.
  • 26.05 per cent were born in other districts of the same state and 11.82 per cent in other states of the country. Thus proportion of migrants declines with the increasing distance.

14. What are the major causes of migration?


      The major causes of migration are:

  • Marriage : -   Among the people who change their residence, more than 50% moved due to marriage.
  • Other Reasons:  - About 15 per cent moved along with their families.
  • Employment: - Only about 9 percent people migrated for employment and 2.0 percent for education.
  • Nearly 33% of the male migrants left their last residence for other socio-economic reasons.
  • Among the total in migrants, males constitute slightly more than 25% while females nearly 75%. Thus different people migrate for different reasons.
  • The proportion of this migration varies between males and females.

 15. Give an account of people migrating to India according to census of India 2001?


  •  According to Census of India 2001

           - More than 50 lakh people have migrated from other countries to India. Out these 50 lakh people , 96% (48 lakh people came from neighburing countries like.

                      ♦ Bangladesh     :   5 lakh

                     ♦ Pakistan           :   9 lakh

                     ♦  Nepal               :    5 lakh

           - Out of the 50 lakh migrants from neighboring countries 1.6 lakh people were refugees from Tibet, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and Myanmar.

           - Indian people migrating to other countries (110 countries) numbered nearly 2 crore.

16. Describe spatial variations in migration?


      Sptial variations in  migration:

  • There are wide variations in migration state-wise.

            - Maharashtra , Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana attract people from Uttar Pradesh, Bihar etc.

       ♦   Maharashtra stands first in respect with 23 lakh net in migrants.

       ♦ Maharashtra is followed by Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana.

      - Net out migrants from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar and Bihar amounted to 26 lakh and Bihar  17 lakh respectively.

  • Among the urban agglomerations.

      - Greater Mumbai go the higher number of immigrants.

     - This in- migration is based on the size and space of the urban agglomeration.

17. Explain spatical variations in migration?


       Spatial  variations in migration:

  • There are wide variations in migration state- wise.

        - Maharashtra , Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana attract people from Uttar Pradesh, Bihar etc.

        ♦ Maharashtra stands first in respect with 23 lakh net in migrants.

        ♦ Maharashtra is followed by Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana.

        - Net out migrants from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar amounted to 26 lakh and Bihar 17 lakh respectively.

  • Among the urban agglomerations.

        - Greater Mumbai got the higher number of immigrants.

        - This in- migration is based on the size and space of the urban agglomeration.

18. Discuss migration and census in India?


           Migration and Census in India:

  • The first official census was conducted in India in 1881. In this census data of population was recorded on the basis of place of birth.
  • The first major modification was introduced in 1961 when two additional components were added:

         - Place of birth: Village or town.

        - Duration of residence (if born elsewhere).

  • In 1971 additional information on place of last residence and duration of stay at the place of enumeration were incorporated in the census.
  • In the census 1981 information on reasons for migration were incorporated and modified in consecutive censuses.
  • In the census the following questions were asked on migration.

          - Is the person born in this village or town? If no, then further information is taken on rural/urban status of the place of birth, name of district and state and if outside India then name of the country of birth.

          - Has the person come to this village or town from elsewhere? If yes, then further questions are asked about the status (rural/urban) of previous place of residence, name of district and state and if outside India then name of the country.

         In addition, reasons for migration from the place of last residence and duration of residence in place of enumeration are also asked.

  • In the census migration is enumerated on two bases:

          -  Place of birth, if the place of birth is different from the place of enumeration.

          - Place of residence, if the place of last residence is different from the place of enumeration.

  • According to the census 2001.

         - Out of 102 .9 crore population 30.7 crore population were reported as migrants by place of birth (30%).

         - 31.5 crore population were reported as migrants in case of place of last residence (31%).

         - People migrate in search of better economic opportunities, jobs and better living conditions.

         - But non-economic factors like marriage, social insecurity, political disturbances, inter-ethnic conflicts.

         - Better social, cultural and health facilities also drive people away from their places of residence.

19. Describe push and pull factors?


      Major causes of push and pull factors:

Push factors Pull factors
  • Cause people to leave their place of residence or origin.
  • Cause:

         - Poverty.

         - High pressure of population.

        - Pressure on land.

        - Wars and conflicts.

        - Lack of basic infrastructure.

          ♦ Health care.

          ♦ education,

       - Natural disasters.

         ♦ Floods.

         ♦ Droughts.

         ♦ Cyclonic storm.

         ♦ Tsunami.

         ♦ Earthquake.

  • causes that attract people from different places.
  • Causes:

      - Better opportunities.

      - Availability of regular work.

     - Relatively higher wages.

     - Better opportunities regarding:

       ♦ Education.

       ♦ Better health facilities.

       ♦ Sources of entertainment.







20. Give an account of consequences of migration?


     Consequences of migration are delineated in terms of the following:

           - Economic

          -  Social

          - Cultural

          - Political

          - Demographic.

Economic consequences:

  • Money (Remittances) sent by migrants.

        - Remittances major source of foreign exchange from international migrants.

  • India obtained USD 11 billion in 2002.

        - Punjab, Kerala, Tamil Nadu major recipients of foreign exchange,

        - Meagre amount from internal migration.

  • Remittances are used in the following:

        - Food

        - Repayment of debt

        - Treatment

       -  Marriages

       - Children's education

       - Agricultural inputs

      - Construction of houses

  • Migrants from Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Andra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh sent remittances from cities etc. Which serve as life blood for their families.
  • Green revolution succeeded due to migrant labour from Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa to rural Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.
  • Unregulated migration are caused overcrowding in cities.
  • Development of slims in industrially developed states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Delhi is negative consequences of unregulated migration.

Environmental consequences:

  • Pressure on existing social and physical infrastructures in the urban areas.
  • Unplanned growth of Urban settlements.
  • Formation and evolution of slums.
  • Over exploitation of natural resources.
  • Depletion of ground water.
  • Air pollution
  • Disposal of sewage and management of solid wastes.

Other Consequences:

  • Migration affects the status of women directly or indirectly.
  • Extra mental and physical pressure/ stress on women when their man folk migrate to cities for employment.
  • Migration of women for education and employment enhances their autonomy but increases their vulnerability.
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