Back to home


1. How powers have been divided in India.

The system by which the supreme powers of the country have been divided between the centre and the states according to the provisions of the constitution is called the Federal system. The union list has 97 subjects, the state list and the concurrent list have 47 subjects. The subjects in the union list are those of national importance. The central government has the power to pass laws on these subjects. Subjects that have to be handled at the same time by the centre and the states are included in the concurrent list. Therefore both the centre and the state have power to pass laws on the subject. 

2. Explain the Legislature:

The legislature is entrusted mainly with the responsibility of creating  laws. The central legislature has two houses, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. Our central legislature is called the parliament. The Indian parliament consists of the President , and two the houses - the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). The members of the Lok Sabha are elected by the people directly. Members of the Rajya Sabha are elected through the state legislatures. 

3. Explain the composition of Lok Sabha.

The people directly elect their representatives to the Lok sabha. The country has been divided into many electoral constituencies for this. This division is on the basis of population. The house of the people shall consist of not more than 530 member chosen by direct election from electoral constituencies in the state and not more than 20 members to represent the union territories. One representative is elected from each constituency. There are 543 constituencies now. Of these 84 are reserved for the scheduled castes and 47 for the scheduled tribes.The President can nominate not more than two members to Lok sabha from Anglo-Indian community. The term of Lok Sabha is 5 years. 

4. Describe the composition and structure of Rajya Sabha.

The council of states (Rajya Sabha shall consist of 12 members  nominated by the President and not more than 233 representatives of the states and the union territories. The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of the state assemblies. The term of a member of the Rajya Sabha is 6 years. Once in two years, members who have completed their term which will be one third of the strength of Rajya Sabha leave and are replaced by an equal number of new numbers.

5.Parliament has some powers and duties. What are they?

  • Power to pass laws:
  • Financial powers
  • Control over the Executive
  • Other powers of parliament

(1) Power to pass laws:- The constitution grants the power to the parliament to pass legislations. These laws are presented as bills. Each bill becomes a law after the acceptance of both houses of parliament.

(2) Financial powers:- The constitution insists than money bills should be presented in the Lok Sabha first. Then it can be sent to Rajya Sabha for approval. The Rajya Sabha has to finish its consideration of the bill within fourteen day.If this is not done it is presumed that the Bill has been passed.

(3) Control over the Executive :- The parliament has control over Executive's using of the administration. The cabinet can continue in power only if they enjoy the support of the majority of members of the Lok Sabha. If the Lok Sabha passes a motion of no- confidence against the cabinet the cabinet has to resign.

(4) Other powers of the Parliament :- 

  • The Parliament has the power to amend the constitution.
  • The Parliament has the power to elect the President and the Vice President.
  • The Parliament has the power to remove the President and Judges of the Supreme Court.

6. What is the qualification to become President ?

Any citizen of India who is eligible to be elected to the Lok Sabha and has completed thirty five years of age can seek election to this post. But a paid employee of the central or state government or local self govt. institutions cannot seek election to this post. 

7. How is the President  elected?

The elected members of both houses of the parliament and the state legislatures make an electoral college. Then they elect the President.

8. What are the powers and duties of President?

They are

1. Executive powers,

2. Legislative powers,

3. Judicial powers and the power to declare a national emergency.

  • Executive Powers:- All activities of the Government are conducted in the name of the President. He is the person who makes all major appointments in the country. Examples: Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, other judges, Governors, Election Commission and diplomats are appointed by the President.

  • Legislative Powers:- Bills passed by the parliament becomes laws only after they receive the approval of the President (signature). The bills which are sent to the President for approval can be delayed or sent back by him/her for re - examination. If the parliament once again passes the bill the President has to give approval. He/she also has the power to dissolve the Lok Sabha.

  • Judicial powers:-

                     (i) grant pardon to a convicted person

                    (ii) release him from the punishment granted to him.

                    (iii) to stop the punishment for the time being

                    (iv) to completely set aside the punishment

  • Emergency power :- When the nation faces an internal or external crisis the President can declare a state of emergency to meet the crisis more efficiently. The President has the right to declare an emergency in 3 different ways.When it is found that there is a danger of external attack or war or an armed rebellion, emergency can be declared. This is national emergency.

 9. What are the powers of the Prime Minister?

The President appoints the leader of the majority party or coalition as the Prime Minister. 

  • The collective responsibility of the cabinet :- The members of the central cabinet have a collective responsibility under the leadership of the Prime Minister. All constitutional decisions are accepted by all cabinet members. The cabinet as a whole is responsible to the Parliament for its working. No - Confidence Motion can be passed against cabinet ministers.

  • Powers and Duties of Prime Minister :- The Prime Minister presides over the meeting of the cabinet. The  Prime Minister serves as a link between the cabinet and the President and between the cabinet and the Parliament. The Prime Minister co-ordinates the working of various ministers and supervises the governance of the country.

  • Central Secretariat :- The central secretariat will lead to the progress of the country.

  • Cabinet Secretary :- The cabinet secretary is an IAS officer who presents matters that have to be decided on by the cabinet at each meeting.

 10. What are the powers of the Supreme Court?

Original jurisdiction :- The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in some matters. In disputes between the centre and the states, petitions on the fundamental rights etc, the Supreme Court can take up matter directly. If the fundamental rights are violated one can directly approach the Supreme Court.

Appellate Jurisdiction:- The Supreme Court is the highest court of appeal in the judgments made by the high courts in civil, criminal and constitutional cases.

Advisory Jurisdiction:- Supreme Court can give its opinion on legal matters,if the President asks for it.

 11. The High Court has 4 more powers. What are they?

  1. To issue order to safe guard fundamental rights or matter relating to it.
  2. Supervisory powers over all courts functioning in the state.
  3. To transfer cases which might involve interpretation of the constitution from the lower courts to the high court.
  4. To appoint officials and staff of the High Court. 

12. Write a short note on subordinate courts.

In Kerala , the highest court of the district level is the District and Sessions Court. This court  has civil and criminal powers.For civil cases there is the Sub  Judge's Court and below that the Munsif court. For criminal cases there is the Chief Judicial Magistrate's court and below that the First Class Magistrate's Court.

13. What do you mean by Public Interest Litigation?

Petitions which are given on matters that impinge on the society as a whole are called public interest litigation. The matters that are being presented in such petitions need not be personal concerned to the petitioner. Example: Device protection society approached the high court to protect.

14. Explain the Powers and functions of Lok Sabha Speaker.

     The Speaker of the Lok Sabha conducts the business in the house. He/she decides whether a bill is a money bill or a non-money bill. He/she maintains discipline and decorum in the house and can punish members for their unruly behaviour by suspending them. He/she permits the moving of various kinds of motions and resolutions like the motion of no-confidence, motion of adjournment, motion of censure and calling attention notice as per the rules. The Speaker decides on the agenda to be taken up for discussion during the meeting. The date of election of Speaker is fixed by the President.

15. What is a Money Bill? Explain its procedure.

       A money bill or supply bill is a bill that solely concerns taxation or government spending (also known as appropriation of money), as opposed to changes in public law. Procedure for a Money Bill:

1. Money Bills can be introduced only in Lok Sabha (the directly elected 'people's house' of the Indian Parliament).

2. Money bills passed by the Lok Sabha are sent to the Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha may not amend money bills but can recommend amendments. A money bill must be returned to the Lok Sabha within 14 days or the bill is deemed to have passed by both houses in the form it was originally passed by the Lok Sabha.

3. When a Money Bill is returned to the Lok Sabha with the recommended amendments of the Rajya Sabha it is open to the Lok Sabha to accept or reject any or all of the recommendations.

4. A money bill is deemed to have passed by both houses with any recommended amendments the Lok Sabha chooses to accept, (and without any that it chooses to decline).
Paid Users Only!
Paid Users Only!
Paid Users Only!
Paid Users Only!
Paid Users Only!
Paid Users Only!
Paid Users Only!
Paid Users Only!
Paid Users Only!
Paid Users Only!
Paid Users Only!
Powered By