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1. What is atmosphere?

The air envelope that surrounds the earth is known as atmosphere. An atmosphere may be retained for a longer duration, if the gravity is high and the atmosphere's temperature is low. Some planets  consist mainly of various gases, but only their outer layer is their atmosphere.

2. Write about the composition of atmosphere?

Other than gases, water vapour and dust particles are found in atmosphere.

Nitrogen = 78%

O2 = 21

CO2 =  0.03

Argon = 0.934

3.Define Isolation.

The earth receives energy from the sun. The radiation coming from the sun is called isolation.

4. Define Terrestrial radiation.

The earth absorbs the solar energy. Due to this, the earth's surface gets heated. The heat as long wave radiation. This is called Terrestrial radiation. 

5. Define Normal lapse rate.

Temperature in the troposphere decreases steadily with increasing height . That is for every 165 m of height , temperature decrease by 1oc. This is called normal lapse rate. 

6.Define diurnal range of temperature.

The difference between the maximum temperature and the minimum temperature in a day  is called the diurnal range of temperature.

7.What are the factors influence the distribution of temperature of the earth surface?

  • Latitude
  • Nearness to the sea
  • Ocean currents
  • inds
  • Altitude

1. Latitude :At the equator, where the sun rays fall vertically on the earth, the temperature will be more. The temperature is less in the higher latitudes as the slanting rays of the sun spread to a larger area than the vertical rays.

2. Nearness to the sea: Places far away from the ea will have lower temperature in winter and higher temperature in summer. But the places near the sea will have a moderate temperature due to the influence of sea.

3. Ocean Currents: The warm water that flows to the cold regions enhances the temperature in the areas close to temperature in the areas close to the sea. Similarly the cold currents that flow to the hot regions reduce the heat in those areas.

4. Winds : While the hot winds raise the temperature of a place, the cold winds reduce the temperature . For eg, the hot dry wind "Loo". But the extreme cold polar winds that blow from the northern polar region greatly reduce the temperature in northern china.

5. Altitude : As the height above sea level increase, the temperature decrease. On  mountains about 5000 meters above sea level it is common to experience cold and snow fall. 

8.Write down the structure of atmosphere with the help of diagram?

  •  Troposphere
  • Stratosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Thermo sphere
  • stratosphere

1. Troposphere : The atmospheric layer close to the earth surface is troposphere. At poles , it s about 8 km and at the equator, it is about 17 km.

2. Stratosphere : In the lower part of stratosphere, the temperature is constant. About 30 km from surface of the earth, temperature remains steady. Then up-to 50 km it increases.

3. Mesosphere : The atmospheric layer that extends from 50 km to 8 km above the sea level is mesosphere. As the height increase, the temperature in the mesosphere decrease. The transitional zone above this where the temperature remains steady is called the menopause.

4. Thermo sphere : This is an area where the temperature increase abruptly. The part of the troposphere, from about 80 km to 400 km. Ionization occurs more during the day and the zone is inactive during night. The short waves in the electromagnetic spectrum, like x rays cause the ionization. 

5. Tropopause : The transitional above the stratosphere is stratopause. 

9. What do you know about Atmospheric pollution ?

When there is a change in the atmosphere it greatly affects the environment. If the presence of any gas becomes a threat to health whether in higher or smaller amounts hand if new gases are added to the atmosphere, it is called atmospheric pollution. 

10. What is green house effect?

The gases like carbon dioxide and methane and water vapour found in the atmosphere play an important role in regulating the temperature. These are the green house gases. The glass houses used in clod regions to grow plants are known as green houses. The temperature in these house is usually higher than the outside temperature. This is because the glass allows the incoming short waves radiation of the sun to enter without any obstruction and prevents the escape of the outgoing long wave radiation. So the temperature in the glass houses remains high. In this ways the atmosphere with the help of green houses gases retain the temperature. 

11. Define global warming.

Due to the industrialization the amount of green house gases in the atmosphere has increased. The urbanization and the increase in the number of vehicles have also added to this. If the atmospheric pollution increase, the green house gases will increase and so also the atmospheric average temperature in the atmosphere near the surface of the earth is global warming.

12. What is Ozone and how it is important for us?

Comparatively, very little amount of ozone is present in the atmosphere. It is from about 18 km to 55 km above the earth surface in the stratosphere. This region where ozone layer. If the ozone in this layer decreases, the UV rays of the sun will fall on the earth. This will be harmful to all living things including human beings.  So the Ozone layer is very important for our earth. 

13.What is Ozone depletion?

The sprays, paint and other articles we use release Chlorofluorocarbon and these gases are agents which cause destruction of the ozone layer. The depletion caused to the ozone layer is called ozone hole. As a result, the amount of ultraviolet rays from the sun that reach the earth's surface has also increased considerably. 

14. What are the problems caused by ozone depletion?

  • Changes in climate
  • Destruction to agriculture and forests
  • Increase in incidence of skin cancer
  • Diseases like cataract and blindness to eyes.
  • The destruction of the organic linkages in our food chain

15.Troposphere plays a vital role in shaping the human life on the earth. Describe.

Troposphere plays a vital role in shaping the human life. The phenomena like clouds, rain, snow, thunder stormers etc are found only in the troposphere. Water vapour and dust particles in the air are also found only in this layer of the atmosphere. 

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