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I. Fill in the blanks:

1. Plant fibres are obtained from ____ and ____ .

Ans: Cotton plants, jute plants

2. Animals fibres are ___ and ____ .

Ans : wool, silk

3. Clothes are made up of ______ .

Ans : fibres

4. Different clothing materials have ___ properties.

Ans : different

5. Cotton plants need ____ climate.

Ans : warm

6. Cotton is planted in the _____ .

Ans : spring

7. ____ soil is excellent for the cultivation of cotton.

Ans : Black

8. Usually cotton is ____ picked from the plants.

Ans : hand

9. Separation of cotton fibres from its seeds is called ____ .

Ans : ginning

10. A ____ of cotton is a loose strand of cotton fibres.

Ans : sliver

11. In villages the cloth is woven on small scale in ____

Ans : handloom

12. Jute is cultivated in ___ season.

Ans : rainy

13. Jute is grown in ____ soil.

Ans : alluvial

14. On large scale cotton clothes are made by machines in _____

Ans : powerloom

15. Twisting of fibres into yarn increases the ____ of fibres.

Ans : cohesion and strength

16. Cotton fibres are obtained from the ____ of cotton plant.

Ans : seeds

17. Jute fibre is obtained from the ___ of jute plant.

Ans : stem

18. Tightly compressed bundles of cotton are called ___ . 

Ans : bales

19. The process of getting fibres from the jute stem is called _____. 

Ans : retting

20. People migrated to colder regions only after the invention of ____.

Ans : fire

II. True of false

1. Yarn is made from fibres.- True

2. Spinning is a process of making fibres. - False

3. Jute is the outer covering of coconut. - False

4. The process of removing seed from cotton is called ginning. - True

5. Weaving of yarn makes a piece of fabric. - True

6. Silk fibre is obtained from the stem of a plant – False

7. Polyester is a natural fibre – False

8. All the plants have fibres in their body structure. - True

9. Cotton is the proud inventor of cotton clothing. - True

10. India was the proud inventor of cotton clothing. - True

11. Cotton plants need cold climate. - False

12. Alluvial soil is best suited for cotton. - False

13. Jute is obtained from the stem of 'putson'. - True

14. Jute fibres are quite strong, 6-8 feet long and have a silky lusture. - True

15. Primitive men and women had no idea about clothes. - True

16. Type of clothing which we wear is influenced by climate, occupation, culture and daily needs. - True

17. Cotton and woollen clothes are smooth to touch. - False

18. Clothes are made from threads, and threads, in turn, are spun from fibres.- True

19. Coconut fibres are good for making yarn. - False

20. Twisting of fibres into yarn increases cohesion. - True

21. While working in kitchen we should wear cotton clothes. - False

22. Clothes protect us from adverse weather condition. - True

III. Answer the following.

1. Why are cotton and woollen clothes rough and silk, rayon, nylon, polyester smooth to touch?

Roughness of cotton and woollen fibre is due to presence of many folds and uneven surface in it. Silk, rayon, nylon and polyester are smooth because they have long plain, fine structure.

2. On what factors does our type of clothing depend?

Type of clothing which we wear is influenced by climate, occupation, culture and daily needs.

3. Classify the following fibres into natural and man-made

Cotton, nylon, jute, wool, silk, rayon, polyester

(i) Natural fibres – Cotton, jute, wool, silk

(ii) Man-made fibres – Nylon, rayon, polyester

4. Name two examples each of the fibres obtained from animals and plants.

(i) Animal fibres – Wool, silk

(ii) Plant fibres - Cotton, jute

5. Name the plant from which jute is obtained. From which of its part do we get jute.

Jute is obtained from 'Putson'. It is obtained from its stem.

6. Which part of these plants have fibres? (a) Cotton (b) Mango (c) Coconut (d) Banana

(a) Cotton – seeds

(b) Mango – seeds

(c) Coconut – fruits

(d) Banana – leaf

 7. Name the country which invented cotton clothing.


8. In which states of India, cotton is grown?

Cotton is grown in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu and Madhya Pradesh.

9. Which type of soil is the best for the cultivation of cotton?

Black soil

10. Which method is used to harvest cotton from the plants?

Hand picking

11. What is ginning?

Ginning is the process of separating cotton fibres from its seeds.

12. What are bales?

Raw cotton fibres are compressed into bundles of approximately 200 kg. These compressed cotton bundles are called bales.

13. In which states of India jute is cultivated?

West Bengal, Bihar and Assam are the main producers of jute in India.

14. Which type of soil is best suited for jute crop?

Alluvial soils in the delta regions of rivers like Ganga and Brahmaputra is the best of the cultivation of jute.

15. What are the uses of cotton?

 Cotton has a variety of uses. Some uses of cotton are given below:

(i) Cotton or cotton in combination with other fibres is used in Manufacture of textiles.

 (ii) Cleaned cotton is used as absorbent in hospitals.

 (iii) Unspun cotton is used as fillers in mattresses, pillows and quilts.

 (iv) Cotton is used as a main raw material for manufacturing of rayon and paper industry.

(v) Due to high water absorption property, clothes made from cotton are extensively used as mops in household and for cleaning machines in industires.

16. Explain various steps in the manufacture of cotton fabric from cotton.

 Important steps in the manufacture of cotton fibres are as described below:

 (i) Cotton is hand picked from the plants.

 (ii) Ginning : The picked cotton is taken to godowns where the seeds are pulled out of the cotton by steel combs.

 (iii) Bailing : Ginned cotton is compressed tightly into bundles weighing approximately 200 kg called bales.

 (iv) Raw cotton from bales is cleaned from straw and dried leaves, combed and straightened and finally converted into rope like strand called sliver.

 (v) Spinning : To make this strand into yarn strong enough for wearing, it is pulled and twisted.

 (vi) Yarn is would on big reels called 'bobbins'. These bobbins of yarn are subjected to weave for making cloth.

 (vii) Weaving : Weaving from yarn is done in the looms.

 (viii) Bleaching and dying : Fabric made in the loom is grey in colour. The fabric is now bleached and dyed at a finishing plant.

 17. In which season jute (putson) is cultivated?

 Rainy season

 18. Why jute plants are cut at flowering stage and not complete maturation?

 Jute plants may be cut at the time of flowering stage because a good quality of fibre is obtained at this stage. On complete maturation of plant, fibres of its stem become very hard.

 19. What are the important uses of jute?

 (i) Jute is extensively used for making gunny bags, potato sacks, carpets, curtains, coarse clothes and ropes, etc.

 (ii) These days, fine quality of jute is also used for making jute fabrics.

 20. In which season is cotton planted? What is its course of growth?

 It is planted early in the spring. Cotton plants grow steadily and soon become bushes of 3 to 6 feet height. After about 2 months, they bear white or yellowish flowers which turn pink or red after a few days. The petals of the flower fall, leaving behind tiny green seeds. This later grows into spherical shaped structure of the size of a wall nut, which is called cotton ball. As the cotton balls grow steadily, the seeds and fibres grow inside. On maturing, the green ball begin to turn brown. On complete maturation they become ready to burst open, exposing the white fibres. As the fibres dry in the sun they become fluffy.

 21. What is retting? Explain how fibres are obtained form the jute plants.

 Jute plants are cut at the flowering stage when plants are 8-10 feet high. The cut, plants are grouped at different places in the field for few days when most of the leaves dry up and fall down. The plants are now tied into small bundles. The bundles are made to sink in stagnant water of a pond for few days when the gummy skin rots out to separate fibres. The process is called 'retting'. Fibre is extracted from the retted jute by hand, with jerks and pulls. The dried fibres are then tied together in small bundles.

 22. What is spinning?

 The process of making yarn fibres is called spinning.

 23. Name two simple devices used for spinning.

 (i) Takli (ii) Charkha

 24. Name the person who made the charkha popular during independence movement.

 Mahatma Gandhi

25. What is weaving?

 The process of arranging two sets of yarns together to make a fibre is called weaving.

 26. What are looms?

 Loom is a device on which weaving of fibres is done.

27. Name the two types of looms

 Looms are two types:

                   (i) Hand operated

                   (ii) Power operated

28. What is knitting?

In knitting a single yarn is used to make a piece of fabric. 

29. What were the wearings of the people of stone age?

During the stone age, people wore bark, big leaves of trees or animal skins to keep themselves warm.

30. Why primitive life was confined to the tropics? When it was possible for the people to migrate to colder regions?

Primitive men and women had no idea about clothes, and were at the mercy of their environment. Primitive life was confined mostly to the tropics where the climate was warm and no clothing was needed. Only after the invention of fire, it became possible for people to migrate to colder regions.

31. What are the three stages in history of the development of clothing material?

In terms of raw materials, cloth making was developed in three stages. The first stage was cloth form plant fibres, such as flex, cotton, nettles and inner bark of the trees. The second stage began with the use of animal fibres especially wool and silk. Silk came to various parts of the world from China. The third stage in the history of clothing began in the polyester. Now man-made fibres combined with other animal and or plant fibres are used for making clothes for improved strength, wearing ability and other qualities.

32. What is called sliver?

Raw cotton is cleaned, combed and straightened and finally converted into rope—like structure called sliver.

33. Explain the process of making yarn from fiber.

Yarns are made up of thin strands called fibres. The process of making yarn from  fibres is called spinning. In this process, a mass of cotton wool are drawn out and twisted.This  brings the fibres together to form yarn.

34.  How are fabrics prepared?

Fabrics are prepared from the yarns by weaving or knitting.

35. List the steps involved in the preparation of fabric.

The following steps are involved in the preparation of fabrics:
(i) Obtaining fiber.
(ii) Preparation of yarn from fibres by spinning.
(iii) When two sets of yarn are involved, yarns are woven on looms to make fabric. When a single yarn is used, the fabric is prepared by knitting.

36. What are natural fibres? Explain with examples.

The fibres obtained from plants and animals are called natural fibres. For example, cotton from cotton bolls, jute from jute plant, silk from cocoon of silkworm and wool from hair of animals like sheep or goat.

37.  What are synthetic fibres?

The fibres which are made from chemical substances or which are not obtained from the plant and animal sources are called synthetic fibres. For example, polyester and nylon, acrylic etc.

38.  Explain how is jute obtained from the jute plant.

The jute plant is normally harvested at flowering stage.  The stems of harvested plants are immersed in water for l0 to 15 days. The stems rot (the process is called retting) and fibres are separated by hand. These fibres  are converted into yarns to make fabrics.

39. What are looms?

The devices on which weaving of fabrics takes place are called looms. The looms are either hand operated or power  operated.

40. When we burn wool why do we get the smell of hair burn?

Wool is obtained from the fleece (hair) of sheep, goat, yak etc. Hair is made up of proteins. This is the reason why burning of wool resembles the burning of hair.

41. When we burn nylon, why we do not get the smell of paper burning or hair burning?

Nylon is a synthetic fiber made from chemicals. On burning nylon these chemicals don’t produce the smell of burning paper or hair.

42. Describe the process of the formation of yarn from the cotton wool.

The cotton wool is obtained from cotton plants. The cotton plants are grown in fields. They are usually grown at the places having black soil and warm climate. The fruits of the cotton plants called cotton boils are about the size of lemon. After maturing, the bolls burst open and seeds covered with cotton fibres can be seen. From the cotton bolls cotton is picked by hands. Fibers are then separated from the seeds by combing. This process is called ginning of cotton. lt is done by hand or by machines. These fibres are then converted into yarn.

43. Describe the process of spinning and weaving.

The process of making yam from fibres is called spinning. In this process fibres from a mass of cotton wool are drawn out and twisted. By this fibres come together to form a yarn. Spinning takes place by hand, by takli and charkha. On a large scale, spinning is done with the help of machines.

The  process of arranging two sets of yarn  together to make a fabric is called weaving.The process of weaving can be done on looms. The looms are either-hand operated or power operated.

44. What is called cotton boll?

The fruits of the cotton plant are known as cotton boll. Cotton boll are about the size of a lemon. After maturity, the cotton bolls burst open and the seeds covered with cotton fiber become visible exposing the fibres. As the fibres dry under the sun, they become fluffy.

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