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1)What do you mean by charkha?
                         Charkha is the device used for spinning. lt is operated by hand.
2)What  are called bales?
                         After ginning, cotton is compressed very tightly into bundles which may weigh about
    200 kg. These compressed cotton bundles are called bales.
3)What is called silver?
                         Raw cotton is cleaned, combed and straightened and finally converted into rope-like
    structure called silver.
4)What is called knitting?
                         The process in which a single yarn is used to make a piece of fabric is called
5)What is called Textile industry?
                        The industry in which fibres are used to make clothes is called textile
   6)What are the uses of cotton?
                         Some of the uses of cotton are:
•    Cotton yarn is extremely useful in making garments, bedsheets, towels and other textile
•    Cotton is used as absorbent in hospitals and also preparing bandages.
•    Cotton is used as fillers in mattresses, pillows and quilts.
•    Cotton cloth pieces are extensively used as mops in household and for cleaning machines
      in industries.
7)What do you mean by jute?
                     Jute is obtained from the stem of jute plant, often called putson. Jute is mainly grown                                         in West Bengal,Bihar and Assam.
8)Describe the process of obtaining jute fibre.
     Process of Obtaining Jute Fibre is as follows:
•    The jute plant is normally harvested when it is at flowering stage.
•    The stems of harvested plants are tied up in bundles.
•    Stem bundles of jute plants are immersed in stagnant water for about l0 to 15 days or more.
•    When stems rot and the gummy skin rots out to separate fibres, stem bundles are taken
                out of water. This process is called Retting.  
•    The fibres are stripped off the stalk by hand. The fibres are then washed, dried in the  
                 sun and finally baled.
9) Write some uses of jute.
            Uses of Jute:
•    Jute fibres are used for making gunny bags, cheap rugs, carpets, curtain, coarse clothes,
ropes, potato sacs, etc.
•    Nowadays, fine quality of jute is used in making jute fabric.
•    In ancient times people used the bark and big leaves of plants like banana or animal skins
        and furs to cover themselves.
•    Later on people learnt to weave twigs and grass into mates and baskets. Vines and fleece
      (the wooly covering of sheep or similar animals) or hair were twisted together into long
   strands to make fabrics.
•    The early Indians wore fabrics made up of cotton that grew in the region near the River
•    In ancient Egypt, cotton and flax plants that provide natural fibres, which were cultivated
near the River Nile, were used for making fabrics.
•    About 40,000 to 50,000 years ago with the invention of the sewing needle, people started
wearing shaped clotlhing after cutting and stitching.
10) Why it is said that clothing is necessary?
                 Clothing is necessary for:
•    Protecting against wind and weather.
•    Protecting against injury.
•    Maintaining body heat.
•    Decorating the body to look good.
11)Which of the following fibres are natural?
   Nylon, wool, cotton, silk, polyesterand jute.
Ans. Natural fibres are wool, cotton, jute, silk.
  12)Explain the process of making yarn from fibre.
          Ans. Yarns are made up of thin strands called fibres, The process of making yarn from  fibres is called spinning. In this process,a mass of cotton wool are drawn out and twisted.This  brings the fibres together to form yarn.
13)What are fabrics?
                Fabrics mean a woven material, textile or other materials resembling woven cloth.  
14)Name some fabrics in your surroundings.
•              Ans. Bed-sheets, blankets, curtains, table clothes, towels and dusters are the fabrics in our surroundings.
15)  Define ginning of cotton.  
               The process of separating fibres from the seeds of cotton is called ginning of cotton.
16)What is spinning?
                    The process of making yarns from fibres is called spinning.
17). How are fabrics prepared?
                Fabrics are prepared from the yarns by weaving or knitting.

18)Where were the cotton and flax plants cultivated in ancient Egypt?
               Cotton and flax plants were  cultivated near the River Nile in ancient Egypt.
19)How are natural fibres better than synthetic fibres?
               The natural fibres absorb sweat, gives cooling effect and comfort in any season.
20)What do you observe when you are visiting a nearby tailoring shop?
                ln a tailoring shop we observe that there are many cutting of fabrics left over after
   stitching. We see that some cuttings are of cotton, some are of silk or wool and some are
    of synthetic fibres.
21)List the steps involved in the preparation of fabric.
           The following steps are involved in the preparation of fabrics:
 (i) Obtaining fibre,
(ii) Preparation of yarn from fibres by spinning and
(iii)When two sets of yarn are involved, yarns are woven on looms to make fabric. When
      a single yarn is used, the fabric is prepared by knitting.
22)What are natural fibres? Explain with examples.
               The fibres obtained from plants and animals are called natural fibres. For example, cotton
from cotton bolls, jute from jute plant, silk from cocoon of silkworm and wool from hair
of animals like sheep or goat.
23) What are synthetic fibres?
               The fibres which are made from chemical substances or which are not obtained from the
     plant and animal sources are called synthetic fibres. For example, polyester and nylon,
     acrylic etc.
24) Explain how is jute obtained from the jute plant.
The jute plant is normally harvested at flowering stage.   The stems of harvested plants are immersed in water for l0 t0 15 days. The stems rot (the process is called retting) and fibres are separated by hand. These fibres  are converted into yarns to make fabrics.
25)What are looms?
                The devices on which weaving of fabrics takes place are called looms. The looms are either hand operated or power  operated. 
26)What happens when a yarn from a torn socks is pulled?
            When we pull a yarn from a torn socks then a single yarn gets pulled out continously as
the fabric gets unravelled. Socks are made up of knitted fabrics from a single yarn.
27)What are the materials used by people in ancient days in place of clothes?
            It appears that in those days people used the bark and big leaves of trees or animal skin
and furs in place of clothes.
28)What happens when people began to settle in agricultural communities?
            When people began to settle in agricultural communities then they learnt to weave twigs
and grass into mats and baskets. Vines,animal fleece or hair were twisted together into `
long strands. These strands were woven into fabrics.
29)When we burn wool why do we get the smell of hair burn?  
                    Wool is obtained from the fleece (hair) of sheep, goat, yak etc. Hair is made up of proteins.
 This is the reason why burning of wool resembles the burning of hair.  
30)When we burn nylon, why we do not get the smell of paper burning or hair burning?  
                  Nylon is a synthetic fibre made from chemicals. On burning nylon these chemicals don’t  
produce the smell of burning paper or hair.  
31)Describe the process of the formation of yarn from the cotton wool.  
             The cotton wool is obtained from cotton plants. The cotton plants are grown in fields. They  
are usually grown at the places having black soil and warm climate. The fruits of the  
cotton plants called cotton boils are about the size of lemon. After maturing, the bolls burst  
open and seeds covered with cotton fibres can be seen. From the cotton bolls cotton is  
picked by hands. Fibres are then separated from the seeds by combing. This process is
called ginning of cotton. lt is done by hand or by machines. These fibres are then converted
into yarn.
32)Describe the process of spinning and weaving.
                   The process of making yarn from fibres is called spinning. In this process fibres
from a mass of cotton wool are drawn out and twisted. By this fibres come together to
form a yarn. Spinning takes place by hand, by takli and charkha. On a large scale, spinning
is done with the help of machines.
                    The  process of arranging two sets of yarn  together to make a fabric is called
weaving.The process of weaving can be done on looms. The looms are either-hand
operated or power operated.
33)What are Animal fibres?
                 Wool and silk fibres are obtained from animals are called Animal fibres. Wool is obtained from fleece
of sheep or goat. It is also obtained from the hair of rabbits, camels and yak. Silk fibre is
drawn from the cocoon of silkworm.

34)Define  cotton.
                 Cotton is a white fibrous substance covering the seeds of cotton. Cotton plants are grown
as a crop to obtain cotton. Cotton plants are usually grown at places having black soil and warm climate. 
Cotton is grown in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Madhya Pradesh.
35)What is called cotton boll?  
                   The fruits of the cotton plant are known as Cotton boll. Cotton boll are about the size of a lemon.After maturity, the cotton bolls burst open and the seeds covered with cotton fibre become visible exposing the fibres. As the fibres dry under the sun, they become fluffy.

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